Table 4.

Main agents of VHFs

VirusNo. of cases/yrGeographic distributionaZoonotic elementIncubation period (days)Mortality (%)
Arenaviridae
 Junin virus20–200N/C ArgentinaMouse7–141–10
 Machupo virus<10NE BoliviaMouse7–1410–20
 Guanarito virus0–100C VenezuelaMouse?25
 Lassa virus10,000W AfricaMouse7–1610–30
Bunyaviridae
 Congo Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus10–100Africa, Middle East, W China, N Asia, BalkansCows, hares, ticks2–610–40
 Hantaan100,000–200,000Europe, ScandinaviaMice, rats14–30<1–10
 Hantavirus Sin Nombre virus125 since 1993N AmericaMice7–14?40–50
 Rift Valley fever virus200,000–1,000,000AfricaCattle mosquito2–630–50
Filoviridae
 Ebola and Marburg viruses5–300Sub-Saharan Africa?5–1250–90
Flaviviridae
 Dengue virus 1–45,000–50,000SE Asia, Caribbean, S AmericaMosquito2–52–10
 Yellow fever virus100–20,000Tropical Africa, AmazonPrimates2–510–30
 Kyasanur forest disease virus100–400IndiaMosquito, cattle, ticks, birds, monkeys3–7?
 Omsk hemorrhagic fever virusNone recentW SiberiaVole, ticks3–7<1–3
  • a N, north; S, south; E, east; W, west; C, central.