Table 1.

Methods of isolation and measures for preventing nosocomial transmission of viruses

MeasureRespiratory precautionsEnteric precautionsBlood precautions
Single roomNecessary. Keep door shut.Necessary for adults who are symptomatic and/or incontinent. Necessary for children.Advisable if patient is bleeding or has open wounds.
HandsWash with soap and water 1 min before leaving room. Alcohol-based handrub when outside room.Wash with soap and water 1 min before leaving room. Alcohol-based handrub when outside room.Cover cuts and abrasions with waterproof dressings. Wash with soap and water 1 min before leaving room and after contact with blood or body fluids.
GlovesNot necessary unless in contact with respiratory secretions.Wear if stool or vomitus contact likely.Wear if contact with blood or other body fluids is likely.
ApronWear when in direct contact with patient or bed linen.Wear when in contact with stool or vomitus.Wear when in contact with blood or other body fluids.
MaskNot necessaryNot necessaryWear, together with visor or goggles, if splashing into mouth or conjunctivae is possible.
Postexposure measuresNone necessaryNone necessaryMay be necessary if inoculation injury or mucous membrane exposure.
VisitorsWash hands before leaving room. Children should not normally be admitted to room.No need for protective clothing but should wash hands before leaving.If isolated for reasons given above, wash hands before leaving room.