Table 8.

Distribution and magnitude of specific antibody response following primary or booster immunization by different routes

Route of immunizationIgA responsea
Mammary glandNaso/oropharynxRespiratory tractIntestineGenital tract
PrimaryBoosterPrimaryBoosterPrimaryBoosterPrimaryBoosterPrimaryBooster
Oral+++++++++++++++++
Nasal++++++++++++++++++
Rectal+++++++++++++++++
Genital±++
Systemic+++++++b +++b +++
Transcutaneous??+++b ??????
  • a + to +++, minimal to very high levels of IgA antibody response; −, no detectable IgA response; ?, not known.

  • b Mostly IgG and less often IgA antibody activity detected locally.