Table 5.

Documented outbreaks of leptospirosis associated with water

Place and yrNo. of casesExposureSource of infectionPresumptive serogroupReference
Lisbon, Portugal, 1931126Drinking from water fountainContamination by rat urineUnknown 315
Greece, 193131Drinking water in a cafeContamination by rat urineUnknown 457
Philadelphia, 19397Swimming in a creekContamination by rat urineIcterohaemorrhagiae; serovar icterohaemorrhagiae isolated from one case 272
Georgia, 194035Swimming in a creekContamination by offal and a dead cowUnknown 75
Wyoming, 194224Swimming in a poolUnknownCanicola 120
Okinawa, 194916Swimming in a pondUnknownAutumnalis 236
Alabama, 195050Swimming in a creekSuspected to be pigsPomona 503
Georgia, 195226Swimming in a creekSuspected to be dogsCanicola 628
Russia, 1952Not statedSwimming in a lakeSuspected to be pigs and/or ratsCanicola 597
Japan, 1953114Swimming in a riverSuspected to be dogsCanicola; serovar canicola isolated 396
Russia, 195462Drinking and bathing in well waterContamination by pigsSerovar pomona isolated 68
South Dakota, 19563Swimming in a riverUnknownPomona 304
Florida, 19589Swimming in a streamContamination by cattle and/or pigsSerovar pomona isolated from pigs 121
Iowa, 195940Swimming in a streamContamination by cattleSerovar pomona isolated from two cases and from cattle 79
Washington, 196461Swimming in a canalSuspected to be cattlePomona; serovar pomona isolated from cattle 414
Tennessee, 19757Swimming in a creekUnknownGrippotyphosa 26
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 197610Swimming in a drainage canalSuspected to be pigsPomona; Pomona serogroup isolated from patients 93
Italy, 198435Drinking from water fountainDead hedgehog in header tankAustralis 92
Missouri, 19854Kayaking in creek during floodingUnknownDjasiman 306
Morón, Cuba, 19866Swimming in a canalSuspected to be dogsCanicola 277
Okinawa, Japan, 198722Swimming in a pool or jungle trainingUnknownShermani 130
Kauai, Hawaii, 19878Swimming in a riverSuspected to be cattleAustralis; serovars bangkok and bataviae isolated 320
São Paulo, Brazil, 198723Swimming in a pool with river waterUnknownPomona 153
Illinois, 19915Swimming in a pondUnknown; several animal species seropositiveGrippotyphosa; serovar grippotyphosa isolated from patients and water 302
Kauai, Hawaii, 19928Swimming in a waterfallUnknownAustralis; serovar bangkok isolated321
Costa Rica, 19969White water raftingUnknownUnknown 482
Barbados, 19972Swimming in a pondUnknownSerovar bim isolated from one case 542a
Illinois & Wisconsin, 199874Swimming in a lakeUnknownUnknown 98