Table 7.

Approaches to enhancement of mucosal immunity to vaccines

GoalApproach
Reduce virulence and enhance antigen loadRecombinant proteins, live vectors
Subunit vaccines
DNA vaccines
Transgenic edible plants
Improve delivery into the mucosaNon-living microparticle carriers (copolymer microspheres, liposomes)
VLP
ISCOM
Improve mucosal interaction with antigensAdhesive antigens
Adjuvants
Enhancement of immune responseMucosal adjuvants
Combination systemic-mucosal immunization
Transcutaneous and other routes of immunization