Table 5.

Events of immunologic activity associated with mucosal immune responses

Events at inductive sites (cytokines involved)Events at effector sites (cytokines involved)
Antigen exposureHoming of antigen-reactive lymphocytes (integrin mediated) to sites of primary immunization
M-cell activation and antigen uptake, transport, and processingSelective seeding of other distant effector sites
Dendritic cell maturation (CSF, TNF-α, IL-4↑, IL-10 ↓)Induction of pIgR (IFN-γ)
Activation of T cells: (i) TCR + CD4+, MHC class II; (ii) TCR + CD8+, MHC class IActivation, proliferation, and terminal differentiation of antigen-reactive IgA B cells to plasma cells (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6)b
B-cell activationa isotype switch (TGF-β, IL-5, IL-6)
Integrin expression: α4β7, L-selectin
Selective migration of B and T (?) cells to effector sites
  • a Additional contribution from dendritic cells, CD40-CD40ligand B-cell antigen receptor.

  • b Additional contribution from CD4+Th2 or Th1 cells.