Table 9.

Possible approaches to prevent or alter the course of autoimmune diseases

ApproachMechanism of action (possible target diseases)
Induction of immune toleranceDefined antigens or peptides, bystander regulation (multiple sclerosis, type I diabetes)
Immune deviationShift Th clones from Th1 to Th2 or Th3; change in cytokine production profile (type I diabetes)
Regulatory peptides of TCRActivation of T cell by B-cell receptor peptides (lupus)
Treatment directed against receptors or cytokine mediatorsTNF and anti-TNF-α receptor interaction (rheumatoid arthritis)
Gene therapy, genes coding for specific antigen productsIL-12, other cytokine genes (possible for most autoimmune diseases)