Table 1.

Phospholipases from microorganisms other than fungi

Microbial classEnzymeaGene clonedSubstrate specificityaReference(s)
Bacteria
Clostridium perfringens Alpha-toxinYesPC, SM, PS, LPC 103, 136, 162, 195, 197
Clostridium novyi Gamma-toxinNoPC, SM, LPC, PE, PI, PG 191
PI-PLCNo
Clostridium bifermentans PLCYesUnknown 197
Listeria monocytogenes PLC-AYesPI 102, 119,203
PLC-BYesPC, PE, PS, SM
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PLC-HYesPC, LPC, SM 13, 29, 137
PLC-N
Pseudomonas cepacia PLCYes 202
Staphylococcus aureus Beta-toxinYesSM, LPC 38, 76, 148, 157, 216, 217
PI-PLCNoPI, LPI
Bacillus cereus PC-PLCYesPC, PE 77, 85, 96,104
SMaseYesSM
PI-PLCYesPI, LPI
Bacillus thuringiensis PI-PLCYesPI, LPI 68, 78, 192
Mycobacterium tuberculosis MPC-Ac SM, PC 83
MPC-Bc SM, PC
PLDPC
PLA 177
Rickettsia prowazekii PLA
corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis PLDYes 118
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum PLDYes 118
Legionella pneumophila PLCNoPC 8
Ureaplasma urealyticum PLCNo 15, 36
Protozoa
Toxoplasma gondii PLANo 160, 161
Entamoeba histolytica PLANo 106,153
  • a Abbreviations: PI, phosphatidylinositol; LPI, lysophosphatidylinositol; PG, phosphatidylglycerol; SM, sphingomyelin; LPC, lysophosphatidylcholine; LPG, lysophosphatidylglycerol; PLC-N, nonhemolytic PLC; PLC-H, hemolytic PLC.