Table 1.

Phospholipases from microorganisms other than fungi

Microbial classEnzymeaGene clonedSubstrate specificityaReference(s)
Bacteria
Clostridium perfringensAlpha-toxinYesPC, SM, PS, LPC103, 136, 162, 195, 197
Clostridium novyiGamma-toxinNoPC, SM, LPC, PE, PI, PG191
PI-PLCNo
Clostridium bifermentansPLCYesUnknown197
Listeria monocytogenesPLC-AYesPI102, 119, 203
PLC-BYesPC, PE, PS, SM
Pseudomonas aeruginosaPLC-HYesPC, LPC, SM13, 29, 137
PLC-N
Pseudomonas cepaciaPLCYes202
Staphylococcus aureusBeta-toxinYesSM, LPC38, 76, 148, 157, 216, 217
PI-PLCNoPI, LPI
Bacillus cereusPC-PLCYesPC, PE77, 85, 96, 104
SMaseYesSM
PI-PLCYesPI, LPI
Bacillus thuringiensisPI-PLCYesPI, LPI68, 78, 192
Mycobacterium tuberculosisMPC-AcSM, PC83
MPC-BcSM, PC
PLDPC
PLA177
Rickettsia prowazekiiPLA
corynebacterium pseudotuberculosisPLDYes118
Arcanobacterium haemolyticumPLDYes118
Legionella pneumophilaPLCNoPC8
Ureaplasma urealyticumPLCNo15, 36
Protozoa
Toxoplasma gondiiPLANo160, 161
Entamoeba histolyticaPLANo106, 153
  • a Abbreviations: PI, phosphatidylinositol; LPI, lysophosphatidylinositol; PG, phosphatidylglycerol; SM, sphingomyelin; LPC, lysophosphatidylcholine; LPG, lysophosphatidylglycerol; PLC-N, nonhemolytic PLC; PLC-H, hemolytic PLC.