Table 3.

Summary of data from case-control studies in patients infected with VREa

ReferenceWard typeSource of VRE isolates (no. of cases)Resistance phenotype and species (no.)Statistical analysis usedRisk factors
164Medical-surgical/ICUBlood (4), urine (2), stools (3)VanA, E. faecium(9)UnivariateDuration of ceftazidime treatment, no. of days in ICU
69OncologyBlood (11)VanA,E. faecium (11)UnivariateIntestinal colonization with VRE, use of antibiotics active against anaerobes
180VariousbVarious (colonization + infection) (41)VanA, E. faecium(6)UnivariatePrevious exposure to antibiotics, use of third-generation cephalosporins, use of parenteral vancomycin
181VariousVarious (20)VanB, E. faecium (35)MultivariateUse of multiple antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, vancomycin), severity of illness
230Various (mainly oncology-hematology, AIDS, surgical, ICU)Blood (46)E. faecium (40, including 38 VanA) E. faecalis(2)MultivariateHematological malignancy, use of vancomycin, severity of illnessc
252Hepatology (included transplant recipients)Various (colonization + infection) (38)NAdMultivariateLength of hospital stay
161Liver transplantationBlood (54)VanA (54)MultivariateLength of hospital stay
  • a Reprinted with modification from reference 154 with permission from the publisher.

  • b Seven hospitals including both primary and tertiary care centers.

  • c Based on APACHE II score.

  • d NA, not available.