Table 3.

Summary of data from case-control studies in patients infected with VREa

ReferenceWard typeSource of VRE isolates (no. of cases)Resistance phenotype and species (no.)Statistical analysis usedRisk factors
164 Medical-surgical/ICUBlood (4), urine (2), stools (3)VanA, E. faecium(9)UnivariateDuration of ceftazidime treatment, no. of days in ICU
69 OncologyBlood (11)VanA,E. faecium (11)UnivariateIntestinal colonization with VRE, use of antibiotics active against anaerobes
180 Variousb Various (colonization + infection) (41)VanA, E. faecium(6)UnivariatePrevious exposure to antibiotics, use of third-generation cephalosporins, use of parenteral vancomycin
181 VariousVarious (20)VanB, E. faecium (35)MultivariateUse of multiple antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, vancomycin), severity of illness
230 Various (mainly oncology-hematology, AIDS, surgical, ICU)Blood (46) E. faecium (40, including 38 VanA) E. faecalis(2)MultivariateHematological malignancy, use of vancomycin, severity of illnessc
252 Hepatology (included transplant recipients)Various (colonization + infection) (38)NAd MultivariateLength of hospital stay
161 Liver transplantationBlood (54)VanA (54)MultivariateLength of hospital stay
  • a Reprinted with modification from reference 154 with permission from the publisher.

  • b Seven hospitals including both primary and tertiary care centers.

  • c Based on APACHE II score.

  • d NA, not available.