Table 1.

Summary of the analytical approach to drug-phagocyte interactions

Type of analysisParameters of interestProblems
In vivo
 Animal models (infection and inflammation)  Humans (health, infection, and inflammation)Global therapeutic efficacy in one specific system, cell morphology and number in blood and tissues, levels of mediators (in serum and other fluids), samples for ex vivo studiesEthics, administration schedule, statistical analysis, interspecies differences, interindividual variability
  Rebuk skin windowPMN chemotaxisInconsistent reproducibility
Ex vivo
 Animal and human, PMN (blood and tissues), monocytes (blood), macrophages (fluids, monocyte derived)Cell functions after complex in vivo interactions (drugs, mediators, cell-cell contacts)Isolation procedures, phagocyte pools and subsets, phagocyte status
In vitro
 Animal and human phagocytes, cell linesCell functions in precisely defined conditions, antigens, phagocyte progenitor maturationVarious techniques and stimuli (various activation pathways) standardization, artifactual milieu and conditions, extrapolation of results
 Specific research on cells and cell linesTransduction pathways, cellular targets, gene transcriptionInsufficient knowledge, no highly specific activators and inhibitors