Table 1.

Mechanisms of iron acquisition by pathogenic fungia

MechanismExamplesReference(s)
Reduction of ferric to ferrous iron Candida albicans 72
Cryptococcus neoformans 44, 78, 95
Geotrichum candidum 71
Saccharomyces cerevisiae b 28, 49, 54, 88
Siderophore acquisition of ferric iron
 Hydroxamates (families)
  Rhodotorulic acid Blastomyces dermatitidis 13
Epicoccum purpurescens 33
Histoplasma capsulatum 12
Stemphilium botryosum 57
  Coprogens Blastomyces dermatitidis 13
Curvularia lunata 94
Epicoccum purpurescens 33
Fusarium dimerum 94
Histoplasma capsulatum 12
Neurospora crassa 94
Stemphilium botryosum 57
  Ferrichromes Aspergillus spp. 20,94
Epicoccum purpurescens 33
Microsporum spp. 8, 70
Neurospora crassa 94
Trichophyton spp. 70
Ustilago maydis 4, 5
  Fusarinines Aspergillus spp. 94
Epicoccum purpurescens 33
Fusarium spp. 94
Histoplasma capsulatum 12
Paecilomycesspp. 94
  Unidentified in report referenced Absidia corymbifera c 40
Candida albicans c 40, 42,90
Madurella mycetomatis c 66
Pseudallescheria boydii 26
Rhizopus arrhizus c 40
Rhizopus oryzae c 40
Scedosporium prolificans d 26
Sporothrix schenckii c 40
 Polycarboxylates (rhizoferrin)Zygomycetes 94
 Phenolates-catecholates (chemical structures not identified) Candida albicans e 42
Wood-rotting fungif
Miscellaneous iron resources
 Hemin Candida albicans 69
Histoplasma capsulatum 102
 β-Keto aldehydes (phytotoxins) Stemphylium botryosum 6, 58
Acidification and mobilization Neurospora crassa 98
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 54
  • a Examples given are those discussed in the review; both zoopathogens and phytopathogens are included. In some examples, general references are given in which additional reports about the listed fungus are cited.

  • b Some strains are reported to be human pathogens (51).

  • c Exact chemical structures not provided. Identified as hydroxamates by the Neilands method (40).

  • d Assay based on color formation on CAS medium; no further work reported (26).

  • e Exact chemical structures not provided; phenolates identified by the Arnow assay (42).

  • f Exact chemical structures not given in report; siderophores detected by CAS assay (30) and identified as phenolates by paper chromatography (31).