Table 2.

Major classes of antimicrobial compounds from plants

ClassSubclassExample(s)MechanismReference(s)
PhenolicsSimple phenolsCatecholSubstrate deprivation 174
EpicatechinMembrane disruption 226
Phenolic acidsCinnamic acid 66
QuinonesHypericinBind to adhesins, complex with cell wall, inactivate enzymes 58,114
FlavonoidsChrysinBind to adhesins 175, 182
FlavonesComplex with cell wall
AbyssinoneInactivate enzymes 32, 219
Inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase 164
FlavonolsTotarol? 122
TanninsEllagitanninBind to proteins 196,210
 Bind to adhesins 192
 Enzyme inhibition 87, 33, 35
 Substrate deprivation
 Complex with cell wall
 Membrane disruption
 Metal ion complexation
CoumarinsWarfarinInteraction with eucaryotic DNA (antiviral activity) 26, 95, 113,251
Terpenoids, essential oilsCapsaicinMembrane disruption 42
AlkaloidsBerberineIntercalate into cell wall and/or DNA 15, 34, 73, 94
Piperine
Lectins and polypeptidesMannose-specific agglutininBlock viral fusion or adsorption 145,253
FabatinForm disulfide bridges
Polyacetylenes8S-Heptadeca-2(Z),9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyne-1,8-diol? 62