Table 6.

Compounds with anti-HIV activity

TargetCompoundClassPlantReference(s)
Reverse transcriptaseEllagitanninTannina155
Hydroxymaprounic acid, hydroxybenzoateTerpenoidsMaprounea africana173
Betulinic acid, platanic acidTerpenoidsSyzigium claviflorum74
CatechinPolyphenol147
Faicalein, quercetin, myricetin, baicalinFlavonoidsQuercus rubra, others165, 208, 216
Nigranoic acidTerpenoidsSchisandra sphaerandra212
Amentoflavone, scutellarein, othersFlavonoids, flavones96, 146, 164, 165, 208, 217, 218
BenzophenanthridineAlkaloid200, 217
ProtoberberineAlkaloid217
PsychotrinesAlkaloidsIpecac (Cephaelis ipecacuanha)217
Michellamine BAlkaloidAncistrocladus korupensis142
SuksdorfinCoumarinsLomatium suksdorfii126
CoriandrinCoumarinCoriander (Coriandrum sativum)99
Caffeic acidTanninHyssop officinalis119
Cornusin, othersCondensed and hydrolyzable tanninsCornus officinalis and others111
SwertifranchesideFlavonoidSwertia franchetiana172
Salaspermic acidFlavonoidTrypterygium wilfordii40
GlycyrrhizinFlavonoidLicorice (Glycyrrhiza rhiza)102, 242
ProteinCactus (Opuntia streptacantha)3
Methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acidLignanMany trees80
Thuja polysaccharidePolysaccharideThuja occidentalis160
Lignin-polysaccharide complexesJapanese white pine (Pinus parvifloria)126
IntegraseFlavonoids, flavones32, 67
MAP30, GAP31, DAP 32, DAP 30ProteinsMomordica charantia,Gelonium multiflorum97, 128-130
Lectins20
Caffeic acidTerpenoid68
CurcuminTerpenoidTurmeric (Curcuma longa)139
QuercetinFlavonoidQuercus rubra67
ProteaseCarnosolic acidTerpenoidRosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)171
Ursolic acidTerpenoidsGeum japonicum246
Flavonoids, flavones32, 48, 67
AdsorptionMannose-specific lectinsLectinsSnowdrop (Galanthus), daffodil (Narcissus), amaryllis (Amaryllis),Gerardia148
Schumannificine 1AlkaloidSchumanniophyton magnificum94
PrunellinPolysaccharidePrunella249
Viral fusionMannose- andN-acetylglucosamine-specific lectinsLectinsCymbidium hybrid,Epiactic helleborine, Listeria ovata,Urtica dioica20
Syncytium formationPropolisMixtureVarious trees9, 52
Michellamine BAlkaloidAncistrocladus korupensis142
MAR-10PolysaccharideHyssop officinalis81
Interference with cellular factorsChrysinFlavoneChrysanthemum morifolium48
29,000-mol-wt proteinProteinPokeweed (Phytolacca)41
HypericinAnthraquinoneSt. John’s wort (Hypericum)41, 99
CamptothecinAlkaloid?169
Trichosanthin, momorcharinsRibosome-inactiving proteinsCucurbitaceae family141
UnknownSulfated polysaccharidePrunella vulgaris214
Sulfonated polysaccharideViola yedoensis154
JacalinLectin?46, 64
Zingibroside R-1TerpenoidPanax zingiberensisWu et Feng86
ThiarubrinesTerpenoidsAsteraceae98
ChrysinFlavonoidChrysanthemum morifolium96
Essential oil/terpenoidsHouttuynia cordata88
  • a —, unspecified.