Table 12.

Possible mechanisms of fungal resistance to antiseptics and disinfectants

Type of resistancePossible mechanismExample(s)
IntrinsicExclusionChlorhexidine
Enzymatic inactivationFormaldehyde
Phenotypic modulationEthanol
EffluxNot demonstrated to datea
AcquiredMutationSome preservative
Inducible effluxSome preservativesa
Plasmid-mediated responsesNot demonstrated to date
  • ↵a Efflux is now known to be one mechanism of fungal resistance to antibiotics (531).