Table 6.

Quantitative PCR: thresholds and outcomes in different patient settings

SettingReferenceNo. of patientsBreakpoints or associationsaOutcome
Renal transplantFox et al. (57)103>106.5 DNA copies per ml of urineHigher association with CMV disease
Kühn et al. (102)58>1,000 DNA copies per 106 copies of cellular DNAHighly predictive for CMV disease
Cope et al. (43)196Each 0.25 log10 increase in baseline CMV DNA load in urine2.8-fold increase in CMV disease risk
Toyoda et al. (170)25>500 DNA copies per 1 μg of total DNAIncreased risk of CMV disease
Liver transplantCope et al. (42)162Each 0.25 log10 increase in baseline CMV DNA load in whole blood2.7-fold increase in CMV disease risk
104.75–105.25 DNA copies per mlIncreased disease probability
Cardiac transplantToyoda et al. (170)95>500 DNA copies per 1 μg of total DNAIncreased risk of CMV disease
Allogeneic marrow transplantZaia et al. (184)117>104 DNA copies per ml of plasmaIncreased risk of CMV disease after day 100 posttransplant
Gor et al. (77)110>104 DNA copies per ml of whole bloodOdds ratio for disease, 6.46 (95% CIb, 1.5–27.4)
>105 DNA copies per ml of whole bloodOdds ratio for disease 10.66 (95% CI, 1.8–60.5)
HIVShinkai et al. (156)94>100 DNA copies per μl of plasmaHigh predictive values for CMV disease
Rasmussen et al. (133)75>320 copies per μg of DNASustained level associated with CMV retinitis
>32 copies per 25 μl of plasma
Bowen et al. (31)97Each 0.25 log10 increase in baseline CMV DNA load in whole blood1.37-fold increase in risk in CMV disease
Spector et al. (162)201Each log10 increase in baseline CMV DNA load in plasma3.1-fold increase in risk in CMV disease; 2.2-fold increase in mortality
  • a Shown are specific breakpoints or relative increases in quantitative CMV load that are associated with an increased risk of disease.

  • b CI, confidence interval.