Table 7.

Comparison of the accuracy of identification systems for the Micrococcaceae

Identification systemYear (reference)Group identifiedNo. of isolates tested% Correct (% correct with additional tests)Comments; (additional test); problematic taxa
API 20GPa 1994 (181)CoNS27761.0Bloodstream isolates; S. epidermidis, other CoNS species
API ID 32 Stapha 1995 (108)CoNS44095.2Clinical isolates; S. capitis, S. hominis
API ID 32 Staph1995 (192)Staphylococci8982.1Clinical isolates
API ID 32 Staph1995 (192)Staphylococci11177.4Culture collection isolates; CoNS species, including S. hominis, S. schleiferi, S. warneri, S. xylosus
ATB 32 Stapha 1991 (141) S. hyicus 5483.3Isolates from pigs and cattle
API Stapha 1982 (87)CoNS10090.024–48 h of incubation
API Stapha 1982 (155) Micrococcaceae 30030.0Stock cultures, 24–48 h of incubation
API STAPH-IDENTa 1983 (5)CoNS30067.0 (92.7)Clinical isolates; (mostly novobiocin)
API STAPH-IDENT1984 (89)CoNS12079.2Clinical isolates, 5-h incubation; S. haemolyticus, S. hominis
API STAPH-IDENT1986 (107)CoNS17588.0 S. epidermidis
API STAPH-IDENT1990 (176)CoNS55100.0Blood isolates; reproducibility study
API STAPH-IDENT1984 (10) Micrococcaceae 414(97.5)Clinical isolates; (oxidase, susceptibility to furazolidone and lysostaphin)
API STAPH-IDENT1983 (61)Staphylococci18880.9 (90.4)Clinical isolates; (24-h incubation)
API STAPH-IDENT1983 (143)Staphylococci58154.0Bovine isolates; S. epidermidis, S. hominis
STAPH-IDENTa 1986 (107)CoNS17588.0Clinical isolates; S. epidermidis
STAPH-IDENT1995 (195) Micrococcaceae 1,10681.1Strains submitted to CDC for identification, stock cultures, and a collection of ocular isolates
S. aureus 16277.2
S. cohnii 911.1
S. epidermidis 51797.1
S. haemolyticus 6175.8
S. hominis 5782.5
Staph-TRAC (API)1994 (181)CoNS27773.0Bloodstream isolates; CoNS species other than S. epidermidis
Staph-TRAC (API)a 1990 (157)Staphylococci13089.8Bovine isolates
Staph-TRAC (DMS)a 1984 (89)CoNS12088.3Clinical isolates, 24-h incubation; S. haemolyticus, S. warneri
Biologb 1993 (162) Micrococcaceae 11369.0–74.3Stock isolates tested at two separate laboratories
Geary et al. scheme1989 (86)Staphylococci55994.6Clinical isolates, multipoint inoculation on agar plates
MS GPc 1986 (107)CoNS17586.4Clinical isolates; S. hominis, S. warneri, S. sciuri
MS GP1994 (97)CoNS22479.0Clinical isolates
S. epidermidis 4495.0
S. haemolyticus 2195.0
S. hominis 5064.0
S. saprophyticus 11100.0
S. warneri 3979.0
MS GP1991 (130)Staphylococci89680.4 (98.1)Culture collection, clinical and skin isolates; (includes probable identifications when the correct species has not reached required level of identification, but has been included in the four possible taxa)
S. aureus 5891.0 (100.0)
S. auricularis 2291.0 (100.0)
S. capitis 7094.2 (98.6)
S. cohnii 4982.4 (100.0)
S. epidermidis 15282.0 (98.0)
S. haemolyticus 7177.5 (100.0)
S. hyicus 2282.0 (96.0)
S. intermedius 3090.0 (96.0)
S. kloosii 1872.0 (100.0)
S. lugdunensis 2264.0 (96.0)
S. saprophyticus 5090.0 (96.0)
S. warneri 5563.6 (90.9)
S. xylosus 3266.0 (94.0)
MS GP1992 (50)Staphylococci37073.4 (92.0)Multicenter study; (requiring additional tests)
MS GP1995 (241) S. epidermidis 5784.0 (95.0)Blood isolates
Non-S. epidermidis 1662.0 (70.0)
MS Rapid GPc 1990 (91)CoNS34288.3 (96.2)Stock cultures
MS Rapid GP1994 (97)CoNS22476.0Clinical isolates
S. epidermidis 4491.0
S. haemolyticus 2190.0
S. hominis 5064.0
S. saprophyticus 11100.0
S. warneri 3977.0
MS Rapid GP1991 (130)Staphylococci91888.6 (99.1)Culture collection, clinical and skin isolates; (includes probable identifications when the correct species has not reached required level of identification, but has been included in the four possible taxa)
S. aureus 5891.0 (95.0)
S. auricularis 22100.0 (100.0)
S. capitis 7088.6 (100.0)
S. caprae 1191.0 (100.0)
S. cohnii 4989.8 (93.8)
S. chromogenes 1968.0 (94.0)
S. epidermidis 15292.0 (99.0)
S. haemolyticus 7181.6 (94.5)
S. hyicus 2286.0 (95.0)
S. intermedius 3087.0 (90.0)
S. kloosii 19100 (100.0)
S. lugdunensis 2462.0 (70.0)
S. saprophyticus 5090.0 (100.0)
S. warneri 5583.6 (92.7)
S. xylosus 3297.0 (100.0)
MS Rapid GP1992 (50)Staphylococci38080.3 (93.2)Multicenter study; (requiring additional tests)
MS Rapid GP1992 (221)Staphylococci23991.6 (95.4)Stock cultures of clinical isolates; (low probability of identification)
S. aureus 18100.0 (100.0)
S. capitis 2185.7 (90.5)
S. cohnii 1080.0 (80.0)
S. epidermidis 4095.0 (100.0)
S. haemolyticus 20100.0 (100.0)
S. lugdunensis 1492.9 (100.0)
S. saprophyticus 2896.4 (100.0)
S. warneri 2596.0 (96.0)
S. xylosus 1275.0 (75.0)
MS Rapid GP1995 (108a)Staphylococci6982.6 (91.4)Clinical isolates; (low probability)
MS Rapid GP1992 (229) S. aureus 31100.0Clinical isolates
MS Rapid GP1995 (182) S. aureus 2090.0Direct identification of positive blood culture centrifuged pellets
MS Rapid GP1995 (241) S. epidermidis 5793.0 (97.0)Blood isolates
Other CoNS1638.0 (49.0)
RAPiDEC Stapha 1991 (85)Staphylococci12460.5Reference strains
RAPiDEC Staph1991 (85)Staphylococci12188.4Urine isolates
RAPiDEC Staph1991 (165)StaphylococciDirect detection in blood cultures, modification from recommended method by predilution of blood broth mixture with water. CoNS species determination not pursued
S. aureus 2896.4
RAPiDEC Staph1994 (112)Staphylococci30387.0Clinical and stock culture isolates
STAPHYtest1991 (211)Staphylococci14572.0Stock cultures, 24 h incubation; many CoNS species including S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. warneri,S. xylosus
Staph-Zymd 1992 (191)CoNS13195.0Clinically significant isolates
Staph-Zym1995 (108)CoNS44097.5Clinical isolates; S. warneri
Staph-Zym1991 (239)Staphylococci14891.1Bovine isolates; S. warneri, S. hominis
Staph-Zym1995 (192)Staphylococci8982.1Clinical isolates
Staph-Zym1995 (192)Staphylococci11199.0Culture collection isolates; S. warneri
Staph-Zym1989 (139) S. hyicus,
S. intermedius
85100.0Isolates from pigs, bovines, and canines
Vitek GPI1992 (191)CoNS13195.0Clinically significant isolates
Vitek GPI1993 (13)CoNS50077.0 (86.0)Clinical isolates; (good confidence-marginal separation)
S. capitissubsp. captis 888.0 (88.0)
S. epidermidis 32289.0 (92.0) S. capitis subsp.ureolyticus and S. lugdunensis are not in the database
S. haemolyticus 6871.0 (95.0)
S. hominis 3741.0 (63.0)
S. saprophyticus 580.0 (100.0)
S. simulans 1233.0 (83.0)
S. warneri 2065.0 (80.0)
Vitek GPIa 1994 (181)CoNS27767.0Bloodstream isolates; S. epidermidis, other CoNS species
Vitek GPI1996 (122)CoNS61653.0 (85.4)Clinical isolates; (includes identifications of probability <90%); S. auricularis
S. capitis 1656.3 (75.0)
S. epidermidis 27453.3 (89.8)
S. haemolyticus 12462.9 (96.8)
S. hominis 3713.5 (73.0)
S. saprophyticus 9514.7 (83.1)
S. simulans 3145.2 (90.4)
S. warneri 1435.7 (42.8)
Other species2532.0 (32.0)
Vitek GPI1990 (157)Staphylococci13044.6Bovine origin isolates
  • a bioMérieux-Vitek Inc., Hazelwood, Mo., and bioMérieux S.A., Marcy l’Etoile, France.

  • b Biolog, Hayward, Calif.

  • c Dade International Inc., West Sacramento, Calif.

  • d Rosco, Tastrop, Denmark.