Table 7.

Comparison of the accuracy of identification systems for the Micrococcaceae

Identification systemYear (reference)Group identifiedNo. of isolates tested% Correct (% correct with additional tests)Comments; (additional test); problematic taxa
API 20GPa1994 (181)CoNS27761.0Bloodstream isolates; S. epidermidis, other CoNS species
API ID 32 Stapha1995 (108)CoNS44095.2Clinical isolates; S. capitis, S. hominis
API ID 32 Staph1995 (192)Staphylococci8982.1Clinical isolates
API ID 32 Staph1995 (192)Staphylococci11177.4Culture collection isolates; CoNS species, including S. hominis, S. schleiferi, S. warneri, S. xylosus
ATB 32 Stapha1991 (141)S. hyicus5483.3Isolates from pigs and cattle
API Stapha1982 (87)CoNS10090.024–48 h of incubation
API Stapha1982 (155)Micrococcaceae30030.0Stock cultures, 24–48 h of incubation
API STAPH-IDENTa1983 (5)CoNS30067.0 (92.7)Clinical isolates; (mostly novobiocin)
API STAPH-IDENT1984 (89)CoNS12079.2Clinical isolates, 5-h incubation; S. haemolyticus, S. hominis
API STAPH-IDENT1986 (107)CoNS17588.0S. epidermidis
API STAPH-IDENT1990 (176)CoNS55100.0Blood isolates; reproducibility study
API STAPH-IDENT1984 (10)Micrococcaceae414(97.5)Clinical isolates; (oxidase, susceptibility to furazolidone and lysostaphin)
API STAPH-IDENT1983 (61)Staphylococci18880.9 (90.4)Clinical isolates; (24-h incubation)
API STAPH-IDENT1983 (143)Staphylococci58154.0Bovine isolates; S. epidermidis, S. hominis
STAPH-IDENTa1986 (107)CoNS17588.0Clinical isolates; S. epidermidis
STAPH-IDENT1995 (195)Micrococcaceae1,10681.1Strains submitted to CDC for identification, stock cultures, and a collection of ocular isolates
S. aureus16277.2
S. cohnii911.1
S. epidermidis51797.1
S. haemolyticus6175.8
S. hominis5782.5
Staph-TRAC (API)1994 (181)CoNS27773.0Bloodstream isolates; CoNS species other than S. epidermidis
Staph-TRAC (API)a1990 (157)Staphylococci13089.8Bovine isolates
Staph-TRAC (DMS)a1984 (89)CoNS12088.3Clinical isolates, 24-h incubation; S. haemolyticus, S. warneri
Biologb1993 (162)Micrococcaceae11369.0–74.3Stock isolates tested at two separate laboratories
Geary et al. scheme1989 (86)Staphylococci55994.6Clinical isolates, multipoint inoculation on agar plates
MS GPc1986 (107)CoNS17586.4Clinical isolates; S. hominis, S. warneri, S. sciuri
MS GP1994 (97)CoNS22479.0Clinical isolates
S. epidermidis4495.0
S. haemolyticus2195.0
S. hominis5064.0
S. saprophyticus11100.0
S. warneri3979.0
MS GP1991 (130)Staphylococci89680.4 (98.1)Culture collection, clinical and skin isolates; (includes probable identifications when the correct species has not reached required level of identification, but has been included in the four possible taxa)
S. aureus5891.0 (100.0)
S. auricularis2291.0 (100.0)
S. capitis7094.2 (98.6)
S. cohnii4982.4 (100.0)
S. epidermidis15282.0 (98.0)
S. haemolyticus7177.5 (100.0)
S. hyicus2282.0 (96.0)
S. intermedius3090.0 (96.0)
S. kloosii1872.0 (100.0)
S. lugdunensis2264.0 (96.0)
S. saprophyticus5090.0 (96.0)
S. warneri5563.6 (90.9)
S. xylosus3266.0 (94.0)
MS GP1992 (50)Staphylococci37073.4 (92.0)Multicenter study; (requiring additional tests)
MS GP1995 (241)S. epidermidis5784.0 (95.0)Blood isolates
Non-S. epidermidis1662.0 (70.0)
MS Rapid GPc1990 (91)CoNS34288.3 (96.2)Stock cultures
MS Rapid GP1994 (97)CoNS22476.0Clinical isolates
S. epidermidis4491.0
S. haemolyticus2190.0
S. hominis5064.0
S. saprophyticus11100.0
S. warneri3977.0
MS Rapid GP1991 (130)Staphylococci91888.6 (99.1)Culture collection, clinical and skin isolates; (includes probable identifications when the correct species has not reached required level of identification, but has been included in the four possible taxa)
S. aureus5891.0 (95.0)
S. auricularis22100.0 (100.0)
S. capitis7088.6 (100.0)
S. caprae1191.0 (100.0)
S. cohnii4989.8 (93.8)
S. chromogenes1968.0 (94.0)
S. epidermidis15292.0 (99.0)
S. haemolyticus7181.6 (94.5)
S. hyicus2286.0 (95.0)
S. intermedius3087.0 (90.0)
S. kloosii19100 (100.0)
S. lugdunensis2462.0 (70.0)
S. saprophyticus5090.0 (100.0)
S. warneri5583.6 (92.7)
S. xylosus3297.0 (100.0)
MS Rapid GP1992 (50)Staphylococci38080.3 (93.2)Multicenter study; (requiring additional tests)
MS Rapid GP1992 (221)Staphylococci23991.6 (95.4)Stock cultures of clinical isolates; (low probability of identification)
S. aureus18100.0 (100.0)
S. capitis2185.7 (90.5)
S. cohnii1080.0 (80.0)
S. epidermidis4095.0 (100.0)
S. haemolyticus20100.0 (100.0)
S. lugdunensis1492.9 (100.0)
S. saprophyticus2896.4 (100.0)
S. warneri2596.0 (96.0)
S. xylosus1275.0 (75.0)
MS Rapid GP1995 (108a)Staphylococci6982.6 (91.4)Clinical isolates; (low probability)
MS Rapid GP1992 (229)S. aureus31100.0Clinical isolates
MS Rapid GP1995 (182)S. aureus2090.0Direct identification of positive blood culture centrifuged pellets
MS Rapid GP1995 (241)S. epidermidis5793.0 (97.0)Blood isolates
Other CoNS1638.0 (49.0)
RAPiDEC Stapha1991 (85)Staphylococci12460.5Reference strains
RAPiDEC Staph1991 (85)Staphylococci12188.4Urine isolates
RAPiDEC Staph1991 (165)StaphylococciDirect detection in blood cultures, modification from recommended method by predilution of blood broth mixture with water. CoNS species determination not pursued
S. aureus2896.4
RAPiDEC Staph1994 (112)Staphylococci30387.0Clinical and stock culture isolates
STAPHYtest1991 (211)Staphylococci14572.0Stock cultures, 24 h incubation; many CoNS species including S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. warneri,S. xylosus
Staph-Zymd1992 (191)CoNS13195.0Clinically significant isolates
Staph-Zym1995 (108)CoNS44097.5Clinical isolates; S. warneri
Staph-Zym1991 (239)Staphylococci14891.1Bovine isolates; S. warneri, S. hominis
Staph-Zym1995 (192)Staphylococci8982.1Clinical isolates
Staph-Zym1995 (192)Staphylococci11199.0Culture collection isolates; S. warneri
Staph-Zym1989 (139)S. hyicus,
S. intermedius
85100.0Isolates from pigs, bovines, and canines
Vitek GPI1992 (191)CoNS13195.0Clinically significant isolates
Vitek GPI1993 (13)CoNS50077.0 (86.0)Clinical isolates; (good confidence-marginal separation)
S. capitissubsp. captis 888.0 (88.0)
S. epidermidis32289.0 (92.0)S. capitis subsp.ureolyticus and S. lugdunensis are not in the database
S. haemolyticus6871.0 (95.0)
S. hominis3741.0 (63.0)
S. saprophyticus580.0 (100.0)
S. simulans1233.0 (83.0)
S. warneri2065.0 (80.0)
Vitek GPIa1994 (181)CoNS27767.0Bloodstream isolates; S. epidermidis, other CoNS species
Vitek GPI1996 (122)CoNS61653.0 (85.4)Clinical isolates; (includes identifications of probability <90%); S. auricularis
S. capitis1656.3 (75.0)
S. epidermidis27453.3 (89.8)
S. haemolyticus12462.9 (96.8)
S. hominis3713.5 (73.0)
S. saprophyticus9514.7 (83.1)
S. simulans3145.2 (90.4)
S. warneri1435.7 (42.8)
Other species2532.0 (32.0)
Vitek GPI1990 (157)Staphylococci13044.6Bovine origin isolates
  • a bioMérieux-Vitek Inc., Hazelwood, Mo., and bioMérieux S.A., Marcy l’Etoile, France.

  • b Biolog, Hayward, Calif.

  • c Dade International Inc., West Sacramento, Calif.

  • d Rosco, Tastrop, Denmark.