Table 4.

Potential molecular mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance

Alterations in drug import
Alterations in intracellular drug processing
 Modification
 Degradation
Alterations in the target enzyme
 Point mutations
 Overexpression
 Gene amplification
 Gene conversion or mitotic recombination
Alterations in other enzymes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway
Alterations in efflux pumps
 ABC transporters
 Major facilitators