TABLE 4

Examples of resistance genes associated with ISCR elements

ISaDeterminant(s)Resistance(s)b
ISCR1dfrA10Trimethoprim
catA2Chloramphenicol
armAAminoglycosides (high level)
blaDHA3GC, BLBLI
blaCMY/MOX-like genes3GC, BLBLI
Some qnrB genesFluoroquinolones (low level)
ISCR2sul2Sulfonamides
tet(31)Tetracycline
ISCR3 family elements
    ISCR3floRFlorfenicol
    ISCR4blaSPM-1Carbapenems
    ISCR5blaOXA-453GC
    ISCR6ant(4′)-IIbTOB, AMK
    ISCR14rmtB, rmtDGEN, TOB, AMK
    ISCR15blaAIM-1Carbapenems
    ISCR27blaNDMCarbapenems
  • a Information is available from references cited in the text as well as from other references (58, 59, 62, 435).

  • b 3GC, third-generation cephalosporins; BLBLI, β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combinations; TOB, tobramycin; AMK, amikacin; GEN, gentamicin; KAN, kanamycin.