TABLE 1

Results with regard to age from studies investigating intrinsic host factors that influence vaccine responsesa

Type of responseVaccine: measurement [reference(s)]
Effective when given at birthLower vaccine responses in neonates and young infantsLower vaccine responses in elderly people
Humoral responses
  • aP: GMTs (52, 53)

  • HepB: SPRs (55)

  • OPV: SPRs (15)

  • Diphtheria: SPRs (16)

  • OPV: SPRs (15)

  • Tetanus: SPRs (16)

  • wP: SPRs (16)

  • Diphtheria: SPRs (60)

  • HepA: GMTs (61, 63, 65, 142), SCRs (63, 76), SPRs (61, 62, 65, 142)

  • HepB: GMTs (61, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77), SCRs (70, 71, 75, 80, 110), SPRs (61, 62, 6669, 7275, 7779, 81)

  • PPV23: GMTs (8284)

  • TBE: GMTs (88)

  • Tetanus: GMTs (88), SPRs (60, 89)

  • TIV: GMTs (87)

Cellular responsesBCG: Th1, Th2, Treg responses (18)BCG: CD4 T cell response (17)TIV: Th cell and cytotoxic T cell responses (86), lymphoproliferative responses (87)
Cytokine responsesBCG: IL-6 and IL-17 production (18)TIV: IL-2 (85), IL-10 (87), and IFN-γ (87) production
  • a AGGs, agglutinogens; aP, acellular pertussis; BCG, bacillus Calmette-Guérin; CD, cluster of differentiation; FHA, filamentous hemagglutinin; GMTs, geometric mean antibody titers; HepA, hepatitis A; HepB, hepatitis B; Hib, Haemophilus influenzae type b; HLA, human leukocyte antigen; HSV, herpes simplex virus; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; IPV, inactivated polio vaccine; MCV, meningococcal conjugate vaccine; MPV, meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine; OCV, oral cholera vaccine; OPV, oral polio vaccine; ORV, oral rotavirus vaccine; PCV7, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; PCV13, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; PPV23, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; PRN, pertactin; PRR, pattern recognition receptor; PT, pertussis toxin; SCRs, seroconversion rates; SPRs, seroprotection rates; TBE, tick-borne encephalitis; TGF, transforming growth factor; Th, T helper; TIV, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine; TLR, Toll-like receptor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; Treg, T regulatory cell; wP, whole-cell pertussis.