TABLE 3

Results with regard to genetics from studies investigating intrinsic host factors that influence vaccine responses

Type of responseVaccine (estimated degree of heritability in vaccine responses [%]) [reference(s)]Variation in vaccine response and vaccine: MHC genes for which polymorphisms have been identified to be associated with variation in vaccine response [reference(s)]Variation in vaccine response and vaccine: PRR genes for which polymorphisms have been identified to be associated with variation in vaccine response [reference(s)]Variation in vaccine response and vaccine: proteins for which single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes are associated with variations in vaccine responses [reference(s)]
Humoral responses
  • aP (53–65) (169)

  • Diphtheria (49) (169)

  • HepA (36) (170)

  • HepB (61–91) (169171)

  • Hib (51) (172)

  • Measles (90) (167, 168)

  • Mumps (39) (168)

  • OPV (60) (169)

  • Rubella (46) (168)

  • Tetanus (44) (169)

  • Varicella (45) (173)

  • Higher antibody production

    • HepB: HLA-DQB1*05 (178), HLA-DQB1*0602 (178), HLA-DQB1*0603 (178), HLA-DRB1*0102 (178), HLA-DRB1*0103 (178), HLA-DRB1*02 (176), HLA-DRB1*1301 (177, 178), HLA-DRB1*15 (178), HLA-DR7; DQ2, DR4; DQ3, DR15; DQ6, DR3; DQ2 (55)

    • Rubella: HLA-A*02-C*03-B*15-AAAACGGGGC-DRB1*04-DQA1*03-DQB1*03-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (190), A*02-C*03-B*15-DRB1*04-DQA1*03-DQB1*03-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (190), HLA-DPB1, rs2064479 (188)

    • TIV: HLA-DPB1*0401 (187), HLA-DQB1*0603 (186), HLA-DRB1*040 (187)

  • Lower antibody production

    • HepB: C4ADel (181), C4AQ0 (179181), HLA-B8, SC01, DR3 (235), HLA-DPB*0201 (180), HLA-DRA, rs5000563 (182), HLA-DRB1*07(01) (174, 176, 177, 180, 181), HLA-DQA1*0201 (180), HLA-DQB1*0102 (178), HLA-DQB1*02(01) (174, 175, 179, 180), HLA-DQB1*0604 (178), HLA-DRB1*03 (177, 181), HLA-DRB1*1301 (181), HLA-DRB1*1302 (178), HLA-DR3 (extended B8, SC01) (183, 184), HLA-DR7 (extended B44, FC31) (184)

    • Measles: HLA-DPA1*0201 (185), HLA-DRB1*03 (185)

    • Mumps: HLA-DQB1*0303 (150), HLA-A*29-Cw*16-B*44 (569)

    • Rubella: DRB1*13-DQA1*01-DQB1*06-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (190), DRB1*15/16-DQB1*06-DPB1*03 (569), DRB1*04-DQB1*03-DPB1*03 (569)

    • TIV: HLA-DRB1*07 (186)

  • Higher antibody production

    • MCV-C: TRL3 (193)

  • Lower antibody production

    • Measles: TLR3 (192)

  • Variations in antibody production

    • Diphtheria: IL-10 (196)

    • HepB: FOXP1 (182), IL-4 (197), IL-4R (197), IL-10 promotor (198), IL-12B (196), TNF-α (196)

    • TIV: IL-28B (199)

    • Measles: CD46 (200, 201), CD209 (200), IL-2 (202), IL-6 (192), IL-7R (203), IL-10 (202, 203), IL-12RB (202204), SLAM (201), TNF-α (192)

    • MCV-C: CD44 (193)

    • Mumps: IL-10RA, IL-12RB1 (150)

    • PCV7/PPV23: IL-1β (196), IL-4 (205), IL-4R (196, 205), IL-10 (196), IL-12RB1 (196), IL-13 (196, 205)

    • Rubella: CD209/DC-SIGN (206), IL-6 (206), leukocyte specific transcript 1 (190), lymphotoxin alpha (190, 207), MOG (206), PVR (206), PVRL2 (206), RARB (206), TNF-α (190)

    • Smallpox: IL-18 (208)

    • Tetanus: IL-4R (196)

Cellular responses
  • Higher lymphoproliferative responses

    • Measles: HLA-A*26-Cw*12-B*28 (569), DRB1*03-DQB1*02-DPB1*04 (569), DRB1*04-DQB1*03-DPB1*03 (569)

    • Mumps: HLA-B*1302 (150), HLA-B*3701 (150), HLA-B*3801 (150), HLA-DQA1*0101 (150), HLA-DQA1*0105 (150), HLA-DQB1*0201 (150), HLA-DRB1*0101 (150), HLA-DRB1*0701 (150), HLA-DRB1*1001 (150), HLA-A*26-Cw*12-B28 (569), DRB1*03-DQB1*02-DPB1*04 (569)

    • Rubella: DRB1-DQA1-DQB1-DPA1-DPB1*13-*01-*06-*01-*03, DRB1-DQA1-DQB1-DPA1-DPB1*03-*05-*02-*01-*04 (191), DRB1*04-DQB1*03-DPB1*03 (569), DRB1*04-DQB1*03-DPB1*03 (569)

  • Lower lymphoproliferative responses

    • HepB: HLA-Bw54-DR4-DRw53-SQw4 (570, 571)

    • Mumps: HLA-DQA1*0401 (150), HLA-DQA1*0501 (150), HLA-DRB1*0301 (150), HLA-DRB1*0801 (150), HLA-DRB1*1201 (150), HLA-DRB1*1302 (150)

  • Lower lymphoproliferative responses

    • Measles: TLR3 (192)

  • Variations in lymphoproliferative responses

    • Measles: IL-2 (202), IL-10 (202), IL-12RB (202)

    • Mumps: IL-10RA, IL-12RB1 (150)

Cytokine responses
  • BCG (39–46) (169)

  • Measles (90) (167)

  • Pertussis (53–65) (169)

  • Tetanus (64) (169)

  • Higher IFN-γ production

    • Rubella: A*02-C*07-B*07 (191), A*03-C*04-B*35 (191), DRB1*03-DQA1*05-DQB1*02-DPA1*01-DPB1*03 (191)

  • Higher IL-2 production

    • Rubella: DRB1*04-DQA1*03- DQB1*03-DPA1*01-DPB1*02 (191), DRB1*04-DQA1*03-DQB1*03-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (191)

  • Higher IL-4 production

    • Rubella: DRB1*15-DQA1*01-DQB1*06- DPA1*01-DPB1*02 (191), DRB1*07-DQA1*02-DQB1*02-DPA1*02-DPB1*11 (191)

  • Higher IL-5 production

    • Rubella: A*02-C*07-B*08 (191)

  • Higher IL-6 production

    • Rubella: A*24-C*07-B*07 (191)

  • Higher IL-10 production

    • Rubella: DRB1*03-DQA1*05-DQB1*02-DPA1*01-DPB1*02 (191)

  • Higher IL-12p40 production

    • Rubella: A*03-C*03-B*40 (191), A*03-C*07-B*07 (191), DRB1*07- DQA1*02-DQB1*03-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (191)

  • Higher TNF-α production

    • Rubella: A*01-C*07-B*08-DRB1*03-DQA1*05-DQB1*02-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (190), A*29-C*16-B*44 (191)

  • Lower TNF-α production

    • Rubella: DRB1*13-DQA1*01-DQB1*06-DPA1*01-DPB1*03 (191)

  • Lower IL-2 production

    • Rubella: DRB1*13-DQA1*01- DQB1*06-DPA1*01-DPB1*03 (191)

  • Lower IL-5 production

    • Rubella: DRB1*11-DQA1*05-DQB1*03-DPA1*01-DPB1*02 (191)

  • Lower IL-6 production

    • Rubella: DRB1*03-DQA1*05-DQB1*02- DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (191), AAACGGGGC-DRB1*01-DQA1*01-DQB1*05-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (190)

  • Lower IL-10 production

    • Rubella: DRB1*03-DQA1*05-DQB1*02-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 (191)

  • Lower IL-12p40 production

    • Rubella: A*02-C*03-B*40 (191)

  • Higher granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production

    • Rubella: TLR3 (194)

  • Higher IL-2 production

    • BCG: TLR1, TLR6 (195)

  • Higher IL-4 production

    • Measles: TLR4 (192)

  • Higher IFN-γ production

    • BCG: TLR1, TLR6 (195)

    • Measles: TLR5 (192), TLR6 (192)

    • Rubella: RIG-I (194)

  • Lower IL-10 production

    • Rubella: RIG-I (194)

  • Lower IFN-γ production

    • Rubella: TLR3 (194)

  • Lower TNF-α production

    • Rubella: TLR3 (194)

  • Variations in GM-CSF production

    • Rubella: RIG-I (194), TLR3, TLR4 (194)

  • Variations in IL-2 production

    • Rubella: TLR3 (194), RIG-I (194)

  • Variations in IL-2 production

    • Rubella: RIG-I (194)

  • Variations in TNF-α production

    • Rubella: RIG-I (194)

  • Variations in GM-CSF production

    • Rubella: CASP8 (194), RARB (194), TRIM5 (194), TRIM22 (194)

  • Variations in IL-2 production

    • Rubella: RARA (194), RARB (194), TRIM5 (194), TRIM22 (194)

  • Variations in IL-4 production

    • TIV: IL-28B (199)

  • Variations in IL-6 production

    • Measles: CD46 (200)

    • Rubella: ADAR (210), PVR (210), TRIM22 (194)

  • Variations in IL-10 production

    • Measles: SLAM (200)

    • Rubella: RARB (194), RXRA (194)

  • Variations in IFN-α production

    • Measles: CD46 (200, 201)

  • Variations in IFN-γ production

    • Rubella: ACO1 (211), butyrophilin (210), IL-10RB/IFNAR1 (210), PTPRD (211), RARB (194), RARG (194), TRIM22 (194)

    • Measles: IL-2 (203), IL-7R (203), IL-10 (203), IL-12RB (204), SLAM (200), DC-SIGN promotor (209)

  • Variations in TNF-α production

    • Measles: CD46 (200)

    • Rubella: TRIM5 (194), VDR (194)