TABLE 2

Results with regard to sex from studies investigating intrinsic host factors that influence vaccine responses

Type of responseVaccine and age group: measurement [reference(s)]
Higher vaccine responses in femalesHigher vaccine responses in malesNo difference in vaccine responses between females and malesInconsistent findings in vaccine responses between females and males
Humoral responses
  • Dengue

    • Adults: GMTs (95)

  • Diphtheria

    • Adults: SPRs (60), GMTs (146)

  • HepA

    • Children: GMTs (63, 142), SCRs (63), SPRs (142)

    • Adults: GMTs (63, 65, 96101, 142), SCRs (63, 101, 106), SPRs (65, 101, 103, 142)

    • Adults with chronic liver disease: GMTs (102), SCRs (102)

    • HIV-positive adults: SPRs (104)

    • Elderly: GMTs (61), SPRs (61, 62)

  • HepB

    • Infants: GMTs (116)

    • Children: GMTs (114, 115, 117)

    • Adolescents: GMTs (105), SCRs (105)

    • Adults: GMTs (6971, 73, 76, 80, 100, 101, 107, 111), SCRs (70, 71, 76, 80, 101), SPRs (6769, 7275, 77, 78, 101, 107, 110, 111, 113)

    • Adults on hemodialysis: SCRs (112)

    • Diabetic adults: GMTs (108, 109), SPRs (108)

    • Elderly: GMTs (61), SPRs (61)

  • Hib

    • Infants: GMTs (118)

  • IPV

    • Adults: SPRs (119)

  • Measles

    • Adolescents: GMTs (149)

  • Mumps

    • Children: GMTs (150)

  • PCV13

    • Infants: GMTs (118)

  • Rabies

    • Children: SCRs (122)

    • Adults: GMTs (120, 121)

  • Rubella

    • Children: SPRs (151)

    • Adults: SPRs (151)

  • Smallpox

    • Adults: GMTs (123)

  • Tetanus

    • Adults: GMTs (60), SPRs (60), titers (147)

  • TIV

    • Adults: GMTs (90, 124, 126, 127, 129, 131, 133, 134), SPRs (90, 129, 133, 134)

    • Elderly: GMTs (125, 130, 132), SCRs (130), SPRs (128)

  • Diphtheria

    • Adolescents: titers (137)

    • Adults: titers (135)

    • Elderly: GMTs (138)

  • MCV-A

    • Adolescents: GMTs (139)

  • Measles

    • Infants: SCRs (154)

  • PCV7

    • Elderly: GMTs (140)

  • PPV23

    • Children: SCRs (122)

    • Adult alcoholics: GMTs (142)

    • Elderly: GMTs (83, 140, 141, 143, 144)

  • Rubella

    • Adolescents: GMTs (153)

  • Tetanus

    • Children: SPRs (89)

    • Adults: GMTs (88), SPRs (89, 119)

  • TIV

    • Adults: GMTs (91)

  • Mumps

    • Children: GMTs (155)

  • Rabies

    • Children: GMTs (148)

    • Adults: GMTs (148)

  • Rubella

    • Children: GMTs (156)

  • YF

    • Adults: GMTs (158, 159), SCRs (159), SPRs (157, 158)

Cellular responses
  • HSV

    • Adults: CD4 T cell responses (145)

  • Rubella

    • Adolescents: lymphoproliferative responses (153)

Cytokine responses
  • Measles

    • Children: IL-6 (152), IFN-γ (152), and TNF-α (152) production

  • Rubella

    • Children: IL-10 (156) and IFN-γ (156) production