TABLE 4

Results with regard to comorbidities from studies investigating intrinsic host factors that influence vaccine responses

Type of responseVariation in vaccine response, vaccine, age group, measurement [reference(s)]
Celiac diseaseDiabetes mellitusChronic renal failure requiring hemodialysisChronic liver failure
Humoral responses
  • Lower antibody production

    • HepA

      • Children: SPRs (225)

    • HepB

      • Infants: SPRs (221)

      • Children: SPRs (219, 220, 222226, 228, 231, 233)

      • Adults: GMTs (227), SPRs (218, 227)

  • No difference in antibody production

    • HepA

      • Children: GMTs (229), SPRs (229)

    • HepB

      • Children: GMTs (219, 232), SPRs (232)

      • Adults: GMTs (232), SPRs (232)

    • Hib

      • Children: SPRs (219)

    • Measles

      • Children: GMTs (232), SPRs (232)

      • Adults: GMTs (232), SPRs (232)

    • Rubella

      • Children: SPRs (219)

    • Tetanus

      • Children: SPRs (219)

    • TIV

      • Children: GMTs (230), SPRs (230)

  • Lower antibody production

    • HepB

      • Children: GMTs (232, 238), SPRs (232, 237239)

      • Adults: GMTs (232, 243245), SPRs (242245)

    • Measles

      • Children: SPRs (241)

    • Monovalent influenza vaccine

      • Adults: SCRs (90), SPRs (90)

    • PPV23

      • Children: SPRs (240)

    • Rubella

      • Children: GMTs (241)

  • No difference in antibody production

    • Diphtheria

      • Children: GMTs (240, 241)

    • Hib

      • Children: GMTs (240)

    • HepB

      • Children: GMTs (572), SPRs (232, 572)

      • Adults: GMTs (572), SPRs (232, 572)

      • Elderly: SPRs (248)

    • Measles

      • Children: GMTs (232, 241), SPRs (232)

      • Adults: GMTs (232), SPRs (232)

    • Rubella

      • Children: SPRs (241)

    • PCV7

      • Children: GMTs (240)

    • Pertussis

      • Children: SPRs (241)

    • Tetanus

      • Children: GMTs (240, 241)

  • Lower antibody production

    • Diphtheria

      • Adults: SPRs (250)

    • HepB

      • Adults: SPRs (252)

    • IPV type 2

      • Children: GMTs (260)

    • Tetanus

      • Adults: GMTs (249), SPRs (249, 250)

    • TIV

      • Adults: GMTs (473), SPRs (473)

  • No difference in antibody production

    • IPV type 1

      • Children: GMTs (260), SPRs (260)

    • IPV type 2

      • Children: SPRs (260)

    • IPV type 3

      • Children: GMTs (260), SPRs (260)

  • Faster weaning of antibodies

    • Diphtheria

      • Adults: (254)

    • HepB

      • Adults: (252, 255)

    • Tetanus

      • Adults: (251)

  • Higher antibody production

    • Diphtheria

      • Children: GMTs (260)

    • IPV type 1

      • Children: GMTs (260)

    • IPV type 3

      • Children: GMTs (260)

  • Lower antibody production

    • HepA

      • Children: GMTs (265)

      • Adults: GMTs (102, 261, 262), SPRs (263, 264)

    • HepB

      • Adults: GMTs, SPRs (242)

      • Children: GMTs (265), SPRs (263, 265)

  • No difference in antibody production

    • Diphtheria

      • Children: SPRs (260)

    • HepA

      • Children: SPRs (265)

      • Adults: SPRs (102, 263)

    • IPV type 1

      • Children: SPRs (260)

    • IPV type 2

      • Children: GMTs (260), SPRs (260)

    • IPV type 3

      • Children: SPRs (260)

    • Tetanus

      • Children: GMTs (260), SPRs (260)

Cytokine responses
  • Lower cytokine production

    • Tetanus

      • Children: IL-4 (219, 573)

  • No difference in cytokine responses

    • TIV

      • Children: IL-2 (247), granzyme B (247)