TABLE 15

Results from studies investigating environmental factors that influence vaccine responses

Type of responseVaccine response, vaccine, age group, measurement [reference(s)]
Living in rural areasLiving in developing countriesSeasonLarger family sizeArsenic exposureLead exposurePolychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins exposure
Humoral responses
  • Higher antibody production

    • Tetanus

      • Children: GMTs (351)

    • Malaria (PfAMA1, PfRh5)

      • Children: GMTs (485)

  • Lower antibody production

    • HepB

      • Adolescents: SPRs (161)

      • Children: SPRs (486, 488)

    • TIV

      • Children: GMTs (487)

  • Higher antibody production

    • Hib

      • Infants: GMTs (489), SPRs (489)

    • Diphtheria

      • Infants: GMTs (489)

    • PCV7

      • Children: GMTs (490)

    • Pertussis (FHA)

      • Infants: GMTs (489)

    • Pertussis (PT)

      • Infants: GMTs (489)

    • Tetanus

      • Infants: GMTs (489)

  • Lower antibody production

    • HepB

      • Adults: SPRs (498)

    • Measles

      • Children: GMTs (491493), SCRs (491493)

    • OCV

      • Children: GMTs (494)

    • OPV

      • Children: SCRs (495, 496)

    • Salmonella Typhi: SCRs (497), SPRs (497)

  • No difference in antibody production

    • Diphtheria

      • Infants: SPRs (489)

    • Pertussis (FHA)

      • Infants: SPRs (489)

    • Pertussis (PT)

      • Infants: SPRs (489)

    • Tetanus

      • Infants: SPRs (489)

  • Association between month of administration and antibody production

    • Pertussis (PT)

      • Infants: GMTs (460)

    • PPV23

      • Children: GMTs (146)

    • Rabies

      • Children: GMTs (146)

      • Adults: GMTs (146)

    • Salmonella Typhi

      • Adults: GMTs (146)

  • No association between month of administration and antibody production

    • Diphtheria

      • Infants: GMTs (146)

    • HepB

      • Infants: GMTs (146)

    • Tetanus

      • Infants: GMTs (146)

  • Higher antibody production

    • Hib

      • Infants: GMTs (327)

  • Lower antibody levels

    • Mumps

      • Infants: GMTs (504)

  • No difference in antibody production

    • Tetanus

      • Children: titers (503)

  • Lower antibody levels

    • Measles

      • Children: GMTs (505)

    • Mumps

      • Children: GMTs (505)

Cellular responses
  • Differences in cellular responses

    • Tetanus

      • Skewed towards Th1 (351)

    • TIV

      • Skewed towards Th1 (487)

  • Lower cellular response

    • BCG

      • Smaller tuberculin skin reaction (396), skewed towards Th1 (499)

  • Higher cellular response

    • BCG

      • CD154 (325)

Cytokine responses
  • Higher cytokine production

    • Tetanus

      • IL-5 (351)

    • TIV

      • IL-5 (487)

  • Lower cytokine production

    • Tetanus

      • IFN-γ (351)

    • TIV

      • IFN-γ (487)

  • Lower cytokine production

    • BCG

      • IFN-γ (396, 398, 500)