TABLE 14

Results from studies investigating nutritional factors that influence vaccine responses

Type of responseVaccine response, vaccine, age group, measurement [reference(s)]
Higher body mass indexMalnourishmentLow vitamin D levelsEnteropathy
Humoral responses
  • Higher antibody production

    • TIV

      • Adults: GMTs (449)

    • HepB

      • Adults: GMTs (101)

  • Lower antibody production

    • HepA

      • Adults: GMTs (447), SCRs (447)

      • Elderly: GMTs (61), SPRs (61)

    • HepB

      • Children: GMTs (448)

      • Adolescents: SPRs (401), titers (453)

      • Adults: GMTs (77, 100, 449), SCRs (80, 450), SPRs (66, 68, 77, 78, 450, 454)

      • Women: SPRs (451)

      • Elderly: GMTs (61), SPRs (61)

      • Pregnant women: SCRs (402)

      • Dialysis patients: SPRs (259)

    • TIV

      • Adults: GMTs (449)

  • No difference in antibody production

    • HepA (61, 447)

      • Adults: SPRs (405)

  • Lower antibody production

    • HepB

      • Children: GMTs (455), SPRs (455)

    • MPVs A and C

      • Children: GMTs (456)

    • Measles

      • Children: GMTs (457, 458), SCRs (458, 459), SPRs (318)

    • OPV

      • Infants: GMTs (335)

    • Pertussis (PT)

      • Infants: GMTs (460)

    • Salmonella Typhi

      • Children: GMTs (461), SPRs (461)

    • Tetanus

      • Children: GMTs (462)

  • No difference in antibody production

    • Diphtheria

      • Infants: GMTs (335)

      • Children: GMTs (462, 576), SPRs (576)

    • HepB

      • Infants: GMTs (162)

      • Children: GMTs (577), SPRs (577)

    • Hib

      • Infants: GMTs (162)

    • Measles

      • Infants: GMTs (335)

      • Children: GMTs (576, 578), SCRs (287, 578580), SPRs (576)

    • MCV-C

      • Children: GMTs (94)

    • MPVs A and C

      • Children: GMTs (576), SPRs (576)

    • OPV

      • Children: GMTs (576), SPRs (576)

    • PPV23

      • Children: SPRs (122)

    • Rabies

      • Children: SPRs (122)

    • Salmonella Typhi

      • Children: GMTs (576), SPRs (576)

    • Smallpox

      • Children: GMTs (578), SCRs (578)

    • Tetanus

      • Infants: GMTs (335)

      • Children: GMTs (457, 462, 576, 581), SPRs (576), titers (359)

  • Higher antibody production

    • LAIV B strain

      • Children: GMTs (471)

  • Lower antibody responses

    • TIV

      • Children: SPRs (472)

  • No difference in antibody production

    • HepB

      • Adults with chronic kidney disease: GMTs (474), SPRs (474)

    • Hib

      • Asplenic adults: GMTs (476)

    • LAIV A strain

      • Children: GMTs (471)

    • MCV-C

      • Asplenic adults: GMTs (476)

    • PCV7

      • Asplenic adults: GMTs (476)

    • PPV23

      • Children with nephrotic syndrome: GMTs (475)

    • TIV

      • Children: GMTs (470, 471), SCRs (470), SPRs (470)

      • Adults: SCRs (467), SPRs (467)

      • HIV-infected adults: SCRs (469), SPRs (469)

  • Lower antibody production

    • OPV

      • Infants: SPRs (326)

    • ORV

      • Infants: SPRs (326)

  • No difference in antibody production

    • Diphtheria

      • Infants: SPRs (326)

    • Hib

      • Infants: SPRs (326)

    • Measles

      • Infants: SPRs (326)

    • Tetanus

      • Infants: SPRs (326)

Cellular responses
  • Lower cellular responses

    • TIV

      • Adults: specific CD8 T cells (449)

  • Lower cellular response

    • BCG

      • Children: size of tuberculin skin reaction (463465)

  • No difference in cellular responses

    • Tetanus

      • Children: lymphoproliferation (582)

Cytokine responses
  • Lower cytokine production

    • TIV

      • Adults: IFN-γ (449)