TABLE 2

Emerging Campylobacter species with reported infections in humans or other animals and current record of pathogenomic studies

Species or subspeciesHuman disease(s) [reference(s)]Animal diseaseNo. of genomic studies [reference(s)]
C. concisusGastroenteritis (131, 155), brain abscess (156), arthritis, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (48, 157), Barrett’s esophagitis (158)Not reported5 (44, 47, 52, 53, 159)
C. curvusPreterm birth (160), empyema (161), alveolar abscess (126), liver abscess (162), gastroenteritis (14)Not reportedNot available
C. fetus subsp. fetusGastroenteritis, bacteremia, cellulitis, neurological infections (meningitis, meningoencephalitis, subdural empyema, brain abscess), perinatal infections (uterus infection, abortion, placentitis), vascular infections (endocarditis, vasculitis, thrombophlebitis, pericarditis) (6, 65)Sporadic abortion (sheep and cow) (163)6 (56, 58, 6164)
C. fetus subsp. venerealisVaginosis (134)Infertility and abortion (cow) (164)7 (5558, 60, 61, 68)
C. fetus subsp. testudinumBacteremia, subdural hematoma (68)Not reported4 (6972)
C. gracilisBacteremia (165), empyema (166), brain abscess (156), head infection (167), Crohn’s disease (40), ulcerative colitis (168), periodontitis (130)Dog (diarrhea) (122)1 (169)
C. helveticusDiarrhea (135)Cat (diarrhea) (18), dog (diarrhea) (122)Not available
C. hepaticusNot reportedChicken (spotty liver disease) (19)2 (19, 74)
C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalisGastroenteritis (138, 139)Proliferative ileitis (pig) (21)(77, 78, 82)
C. insulaenigraeGastroenteritis (135), septicemia (86)Not reportedNot available
C. lari subsp. lariGastroenteritis (153, 170), bacteremia (88, 89, 171)Not reported2 (85, 86)
C. mucosalisGastroenteritis (50, 135)Diarrhea (dog) (122)Not available
C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorumNot reportedPinniped (abscess) (30)1 (30)
C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicusNot reportedPinniped (abscess) (30)1 (30)
C. rectusGastroenteritis (172), Crohn’s disease (40, 42), ulcerative colitis (168), periodontal disease (147, 173), bacteremia (174), oral abscess (175), bone abscess (156), empyema thoracis (176)Not reportedNot available
C. showaeCrohn’s disease (40, 42), ulcerative colitis (168), abscess (156)Diarrhea (dog) (122)Not available
C. sputorumGastroenteritis (177, 178), abscess (179), bacteremia (180)Diarrhea (dog) (122), sheep (abortion) (33)2 (116, 181)
C. upsaliensisGastroenteritis (96, 182184), abortion (185), bacteremia (186), breast abscess (187)Not reportedNot available
C. ureolyticusGastroenteritis (92, 153), Crohn’s disease (40, 168), ulcerative colitis (168), oral and perianal abscesses (167)Not reported3 (94)
C. volucrisBacteremia (87)Not reportedNot available