TABLE 2

Acquired resistances described in Enterobacter cloacae complex bacteria

Antibiotic groupMechanism of resistanceGene(s)SpeciesReference(s)
β-LactamsEnzymatic β-lactamases
    Class AblaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-ME. cloacae63, 315
E. hormaechei270
blaVEB, blaGES/IBC, blaKPC, blaFRIE. cloacae210, 316
E. hormaechei317
blaNMCA, blaIMIE. cloacae318
E. asburiae54
    Class BblaVIM, blaGIME. cloacae69, 319, 320
blaNDME. ludwigii84
blaIMP, blaNDME. cloacae, E. hormaechei209, 321
    Class CampCE. cloacae288, 295
E. asburiae3
E. hormaechei213
E. kobei, E. ludwigii, E. nimipressuralis163
    Class DblaOXA-48E. cloacae320
Impermeability/effluxacrAB-tolC, ompC, ompF, ompXE. cloacae25, 31, 240, 241, 263, 322
FluoroquinolonesTarget mutationgyrA, gyrB, parC, parEE. cloacae291
Enzymatic (acetyltransferase)aac(6)-Ib-crE. cloacae148
Protective mechanism targetqnr (A, B, S, C, D)E. cloacae, E. hormaechei323
EffluxqepA, acrAB-tolC, oqxAB, sugE, emmdR E. cloacae258, 259, 263
AminoglycosidesEnzymatic (acetyl, phospho, nucleotidyltransferase)aac, aph, antE. cloacae323
MethylasearmA, rmtBE. cloacae324
CyclinesEffluxacrAB-tolCE. cloacae, E. hormaechei325