TABLE 3

Epidemiology and prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Pakistan

Bacteria and yr of studyStudy typeState(s)Site(s) of isolation; sample type% resistance (no. of isolates)Reference
Acinetobacter spp.
    2014Single centerSindhInpatient and outpatient; all clinical samples90 (unknown)75
    2013Single centerSindhInpatient; all clinical samples82 (unknown)75
    2012Single centerSindhInpatient and outpatient; all clinical samples82 (125)75
    2012Single centerSindhInpatient and outpatient; all clinical samples75 (unknown)75
    2010–20113 centersIslamabad Capital Territory, PunjabInpatient; all clinical samples62 (90)76
    2011Single centerSindhInpatient; all clinical samples65 (459)75
    2011Single centerIslamabad Capital TerritoryInpatient and outpatient; wound samples100 (91)77
    20082 centersPunjabInpatient; all clinical samples65 (17)78
    2008Single centerSindhNeonatal intensive care unit; all clinical samples89 (122)79
    2006Single centerSindhInpatient; all clinical isolates98 (100)80
Enterobacteriaceae
    2014Single centerSindhInpatient and outpatient; all clinical samplesE. coli, 5 (unknown); K. pneumoniae, 18 (unknown)75
    2013Single centerSindhInpatient; all clinical isolatesE. coli, 3 (unknown); K. pneumoniae, 8 (unknown)75
    2012Single centerSindhInpatient and outpatient; all clinical samplesE. coli, 1 (232); K. pneumoniae, 21 (86)75
    2012Single centerSindhInpatient and outpatient; all clinical samplesE. coli, 0 (unknown); K. pneumoniae, 0 (unknown)75
    2011Single centerSindhInpatient and outpatient; all clinical samplesE. coli, 0 (unknown); K. pneumoniae, 0 (unknown)75
    2002–2007Single centerSindhInpatient and outpatient; all clinical samplesK. pneumoniae, 0.1 (15,914)83
    Unknown2 centersIslamabad Capital Territory, PunjabInpatient and outpatient; all clinical samplesE. coli, 34 (145); K. pneumoniae, 45 (82)82