TABLE 2

Epidemiology and prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in India

Bacteria and yr of studyStudy typeState(s)Site of isolation; sample type(s)% resistancea(no. of isolates)Reference
Acinetobacter spp.
    2009–2013Single centerTamil NaduInpatient; blood samples67–74 (332)53
    2011–2013Single centerMaharashtraIntensive care unit; all clinical samples42 (368)54
    2012Single centerTamil NaduUnknown; urine, blood, and respiratory samples<5055
    2010–2011Single centerPunjabInpatient; all clinical samples42 (132)56
    2002–2008Single centerDelhiInpatient; blood samples0–74 (754)57
    UnknownTwo centersDelhiInpatient; all clinical samples85 (100)58
    UnknownSingle centerPunjabUnknown; all clinical samples40 (964)59
    UnknownSingle centerJammu and KashmirInpatient; all clinical samples60 (165)60
Enterobacteriaceae
    2003–2013Single centerTamil NaduInpatient; blood samplesE. coli, 0–5 (1,918); K. pneumoniae, 0–40 (1,250)53
    2012Single centerTamil NaduInpatient; urine samplesE. coli, 15 (300)62
    2012Single centerUttar PradeshInpatient; all clinical samplesEnterobacteriaceae, 12 (464)63
    2011–2012Single centerKeralaInpatient; respiratory samplesK. pneumoniae, 8 (125)64
    2011Single centerPunjabInpatient; all clinical samplesE. coli, 4 (200); K. pneumoniae, 12 (100)65
    2010Single centerUttar PradeshInpatient and outpatient; all clinical samplesEnterobacteriaceae, 8 (780)66
    20103 centersMaharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil NaduInpatient; all clinical samplesEnterobacteriaceae, 5.2 (252)67
    2008–20097 centersMaharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Karnataka, Tamil NaduInpatient; intra-abdominal samplesEnterobacteriaceae, 21.3 (347)10
    2008–2009Single centerPuducherryInpatient; urinary samplesE. coli, 10 (2,671); K. pneumoniae, 18 (551)68
    2000–2009Single centerDelhiInpatient; blood samplesE. coli, 3–6 (1,103); K. pneumoniae, 2–52 (1,271)69
    2008Single centerDelhiInpatient; all clinical samplesEnterobacteriaceae 7 (113)70
    2006–200714 centersKerala, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, TelanganaInpatient; intra-abdominal samplesEnterobacteriaceae, 2.7 (1,443)71
  • a Ranges indicate the change between the first and final years of the study.