TABLE 4

Worldwide reports of Enterobacteriaceae isolates harboring a plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene

SpeciesCountry of isolationCountry of origin or traveled regionSample originPeriod (yr)Plasmid featuresaReference(s)
Inc typeSize (kb)Mobile elementOther antimicrobial resistance(s)
E. coli ChinaChinaChickens1980–2014 142
ChinaChinaHuman (fecal carriage)Before 2011 218, 219
ChinaChinaChickens, pigs, and humans (infections)2011–2014IncI264ISApl1No 139
ChinaChina 2011–2014IncHI2251ISApl1Resistance to cefotaxime (blaCTX-M-14), aminoglycosides, florfenicol, olaquindox, cotrimoxazole, fosfomycin (fosA3), and ciprofloxacin (oqxAB) 220
ChinaChinaChicken meat2014IncI265 146
ChinaChinaHuman (blood)2014–2015 147
ChinaChinaHuman (fecal carriage)2015 221
ChinaUSAHuman (fecal carriage)2016IncFI33Resistance to β-lactams (blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1) 148
LaosLaosHuman (fecal carriage) and pigs2012 222
ThailandThailandHuman (fecal carriage)2012 223
VietnamVietnamPigs (fecal carriage)2014–2015ISApl1Resistance to cefotaxime (blaCTX-M-55), trimethoprim (dfrA12), tetracycline (tetA), aminoglycosides [aadA3, aph(3′)-IA], phenicol (cmlA1), quinolones (qnrS1, oqxA), lincosamides [inu(F)], and sulfonamides (sul2, sul3) 224
CambodiaCambodiaHuman (feces)2012ISApl1 224
MalaysiaMalaysiaWater, chickens, pigs2013ISApl1 or not 225
JapanJapanCattle (mastitis)2008–2013Incl260–61 226
FranceFranceVeal calves (feces)2005–2014IncHI2Resistance to cefotaxime (blaCTX-M-1), sulfonamides, and tetracyclines 227
FranceFranceBroiler, turkeys, pigs2007–2014 228
ItalyItalyHuman (urine, surgical wound)2013–2015 229
ItalyItalyHuman (rectal swabs)2015NT35 230
United KingdomUnited Kingdom or EgyptHuman (blood, stools)2012–2015IncHI2, IncI2ISApl1 or not 231
SwitzerlandRiver water2012 143
SwitzerlandThailand and VietnamVegetables2014 143
SwitzerlandSwitzerlandHuman (urinary tract infection)201560Resistance to chloramphenicol, florfenicol, and cotrimoxazole 149
SwitzerlandSwitzerlandHuman (blood)2016IncFIB30 and 80 156
BelgiumBelgiumCalves and piglets (feces)2011–2012IncP80Truncated ISApl1Resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA1), tetracycline (tetA), aminoglycosides [aadA1, aph6-Id/strA, and aph(3′)-Ib/strB], and sulfonamides (sul1) 223
NetherlandsEuropeChicken meat2009–2014 232
NetherlandsNetherlandsChickens, veal calves, turkeys2010–2015 233
NetherlandsDutch fresh meat and imported frozen meatRetail meat (mostly chicken and turkey)2009–2016 233
NetherlandsNetherlandsHuman (blood)2011 233
NetherlandsTravel in Tunisia, South America, China, Southeast AsiaHuman (fecal carriage)2012–2013 234
NetherlandsGermanyVeal valves, broilers, and turkey2010–2015IncHI2 or IncX4ISApl1 235
Germany Pigs and human (wound infection)2010–2015IncHI2 or IncX4ISApl1 or not 150
DenmarkEuropeChicken meat2012–2014IncI2 or IncX4 236
DenmarkDenmarkHuman (bloodstream infection)2015IncI2 236
CanadaUnknownBeef meat2010IncHI2A 151
CanadaLived in Egypt for 5 yearsHuman (gastrostomy site and rectum)2011IncI2 151
USAUSAHuman (urine)2016IncF225ISApl1Resistance to β-lactams (blaCTX-M-55) 237
AlgeriaAlgeriaChickens2015 222
TunisiaTunisia/FranceChickens2015IncHI2Resistance to β-lactams (blaCTX-M-1) 238
EgyptEgyptHuman (sputum)2015>90 239
South AfricaSouth AfricaHuman2014–2015IncI265, 70ISApl1 or not 154
IncHI2150 154
IncX430 154
South AfricaSouth AfricaBroiler chicken2008–2014IncI262ISApl1 240
BrazilBrazilChicken, swine2003–2015 241
K. pneumoniae ChinaChinaHuman (surgical wound, peritoneal fluid)2015 147
ChinaChinaFood animals and human (infections)2011–2014Incl264ISApl1No 139
DenmarkDenmarkHuman (unknown)2014 224
Enterobacter cloacae ChinaChinaHuman (urine)2014IncFI70 242
Enterobacter aerogenes ChinaChinaHuman (vaginal secretion)2014IncFI65Resistance to β-lactams (blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-15) 242
Cronobacter sakazakii ChinaChinaChicken (diarrhea)2015Incl265ISApl1 152
Salmonella enterica serotype TyphimuriumPortugalPortugalFood animals2011IncHI2ISApl1 218, 225, 243
S. enterica JapanJapanSwine (septicemia)2013IncI258 226
Salmonella Paratyphi BFranceFranceChicken meat, guinea fowl pie2012IncX4 244
Salmonella DerbyFranceFrancePork sausage2013IncP 244
Salmonella 1,4[5],12:i:−FranceFranceBroilers2013IncP 244
Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella VirchowUnited KingdomUnited KingdomHuman (feces)2012–2015IncHI2, IncX4No 231
Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Paratyphi B var. JavaUnited KingdomTravel in Asia and United Arab EmiratesHuman (feces)2012–2015IncHI2, IncI2ISApl1 or not 231
Salmonella JavaNetherlandsChicken meat2010–2015IncX430 235
Salmonella AnatumNetherlandsTurkey meat2013IncX430 235
Salmonella SchwartzengrundNetherlandsTurkey meat2015IncX430 235
Salmonella Paratyphi B var. JavaUnited-KingdomEuropePoultry meat2012–2015IncHI2No 231
Shigella sonnei VietnamVietnamHuman (feces)2008IncI2 145
Kluyvera ascorbata ChinaChinaHospital sewage2015IncI257 216
  • a NT, nontypeable; —, unknown.