TABLE 4

Worldwide reports of Enterobacteriaceae isolates harboring a plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene

SpeciesCountry of isolationCountry of origin or traveled regionSample originPeriod (yr)Plasmid featuresaReference(s)
Inc typeSize (kb)Mobile elementOther antimicrobial resistance(s)
E. coliChinaChinaChickens1980–2014142
ChinaChinaHuman (fecal carriage)Before 2011218, 219
ChinaChinaChickens, pigs, and humans (infections)2011–2014IncI264ISApl1No139
ChinaChina2011–2014IncHI2251ISApl1Resistance to cefotaxime (blaCTX-M-14), aminoglycosides, florfenicol, olaquindox, cotrimoxazole, fosfomycin (fosA3), and ciprofloxacin (oqxAB)220
ChinaChinaChicken meat2014IncI265146
ChinaChinaHuman (blood)2014–2015147
ChinaChinaHuman (fecal carriage)2015221
ChinaUSAHuman (fecal carriage)2016IncFI33Resistance to β-lactams (blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1)148
LaosLaosHuman (fecal carriage) and pigs2012222
ThailandThailandHuman (fecal carriage)2012223
VietnamVietnamPigs (fecal carriage)2014–2015ISApl1Resistance to cefotaxime (blaCTX-M-55), trimethoprim (dfrA12), tetracycline (tetA), aminoglycosides [aadA3, aph(3′)-IA], phenicol (cmlA1), quinolones (qnrS1, oqxA), lincosamides [inu(F)], and sulfonamides (sul2, sul3)224
CambodiaCambodiaHuman (feces)2012ISApl1224
MalaysiaMalaysiaWater, chickens, pigs2013ISApl1 or not225
JapanJapanCattle (mastitis)2008–2013Incl260–61226
FranceFranceVeal calves (feces)2005–2014IncHI2Resistance to cefotaxime (blaCTX-M-1), sulfonamides, and tetracyclines227
FranceFranceBroiler, turkeys, pigs2007–2014228
ItalyItalyHuman (urine, surgical wound)2013–2015229
ItalyItalyHuman (rectal swabs)2015NT35230
United KingdomUnited Kingdom or EgyptHuman (blood, stools)2012–2015IncHI2, IncI2ISApl1 or not231
SwitzerlandRiver water2012143
SwitzerlandThailand and VietnamVegetables2014143
SwitzerlandSwitzerlandHuman (urinary tract infection)201560Resistance to chloramphenicol, florfenicol, and cotrimoxazole149
SwitzerlandSwitzerlandHuman (blood)2016IncFIB30 and 80156
BelgiumBelgiumCalves and piglets (feces)2011–2012IncP80Truncated ISApl1Resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA1), tetracycline (tetA), aminoglycosides [aadA1, aph6-Id/strA, and aph(3′)-Ib/strB], and sulfonamides (sul1)223
NetherlandsEuropeChicken meat2009–2014232
NetherlandsNetherlandsChickens, veal calves, turkeys2010–2015233
NetherlandsDutch fresh meat and imported frozen meatRetail meat (mostly chicken and turkey)2009–2016233
NetherlandsNetherlandsHuman (blood)2011233
NetherlandsTravel in Tunisia, South America, China, Southeast AsiaHuman (fecal carriage)2012–2013234
NetherlandsGermanyVeal valves, broilers, and turkey2010–2015IncHI2 or IncX4ISApl1235
GermanyPigs and human (wound infection)2010–2015IncHI2 or IncX4ISApl1 or not150
DenmarkEuropeChicken meat2012–2014IncI2 or IncX4236
DenmarkDenmarkHuman (bloodstream infection)2015IncI2236
CanadaUnknownBeef meat2010IncHI2A151
CanadaLived in Egypt for 5 yearsHuman (gastrostomy site and rectum)2011IncI2151
USAUSAHuman (urine)2016IncF225ISApl1Resistance to β-lactams (blaCTX-M-55)237
AlgeriaAlgeriaChickens2015222
TunisiaTunisia/FranceChickens2015IncHI2Resistance to β-lactams (blaCTX-M-1)238
EgyptEgyptHuman (sputum)2015>90239
South AfricaSouth AfricaHuman2014–2015IncI265, 70ISApl1 or not154
IncHI2150154
IncX430154
South AfricaSouth AfricaBroiler chicken2008–2014IncI262ISApl1240
BrazilBrazilChicken, swine2003–2015241
K. pneumoniaeChinaChinaHuman (surgical wound, peritoneal fluid)2015147
ChinaChinaFood animals and human (infections)2011–2014Incl264ISApl1No139
DenmarkDenmarkHuman (unknown)2014224
Enterobacter cloacaeChinaChinaHuman (urine)2014IncFI70242
Enterobacter aerogenesChinaChinaHuman (vaginal secretion)2014IncFI65Resistance to β-lactams (blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-15)242
Cronobacter sakazakiiChinaChinaChicken (diarrhea)2015Incl265ISApl1152
Salmonella enterica serotype TyphimuriumPortugalPortugalFood animals2011IncHI2ISApl1218, 225, 243
S. entericaJapanJapanSwine (septicemia)2013IncI258226
Salmonella Paratyphi BFranceFranceChicken meat, guinea fowl pie2012IncX4244
Salmonella DerbyFranceFrancePork sausage2013IncP244
Salmonella 1,4[5],12:i:−FranceFranceBroilers2013IncP244
Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella VirchowUnited KingdomUnited KingdomHuman (feces)2012–2015IncHI2, IncX4No231
Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Paratyphi B var. JavaUnited KingdomTravel in Asia and United Arab EmiratesHuman (feces)2012–2015IncHI2, IncI2ISApl1 or not231
Salmonella JavaNetherlandsChicken meat2010–2015IncX430235
Salmonella AnatumNetherlandsTurkey meat2013IncX430235
Salmonella SchwartzengrundNetherlandsTurkey meat2015IncX430235
Salmonella Paratyphi B var. JavaUnited-KingdomEuropePoultry meat2012–2015IncHI2No231
Shigella sonneiVietnamVietnamHuman (feces)2008IncI2145
Kluyvera ascorbataChinaChinaHospital sewage2015IncI257216
  • a NT, nontypeable; —, unknown.