TABLE 7

Pros and cons of sequencing platforms

PlatformProsCons
Sequencing by synthesis
    IlluminaTechnology used widely by the WGS industry; lowest per-Gb sequencing cost range; highest confirmed output; wide range of Illumina machines suited for a wealth of applications and demands; lowest error ratesRehybridization of template strands and low-copy-no. yields during bridge amplification; use of potentially biased DNA polymerases during bridge amplification; incomplete base extension (phasing, prephasing); shortest read lengths; long sequence runs; high instrument costs; no real-time data access
Single-molecule real-time sequencing
    Pacific BiosciencesFast sequence runs; long reads suitable for assembly of draft genomes and completion of genome assemblies; possibility of obtaining epigenetic sequence information; real-time measurement of base incorporationPossibility of false detection of unincorporated nucleotides during sequencing; largest instrument footprint; low output per run; high error rates
    Oxford Nanopore TechnologiesFast sequencing; longest confirmed reads; smallest instrument footprint; lowest instrument and consumables costs; real-time measurement of base incorporation; real-time data outputSensitivity of biological nanopores to changes in exptl environment; highest error rate of all platforms; the performance of the PromethION machine is not experimentally validated