TABLE 16

Persons at increased risk for M. tuberculosis complex infection or at increased risk for progression from latent tuberculosis infection to active tuberculosisa

Patient populationDescription
Persons at increased risk for TB infectionThose with close contact with known or suspected active TB cases
Foreign-born persons from areas that have a high incidence of active TB
Residents and employees in congregate settings whose clients are at an increased risk for active TB, especially if visits are frequent or prolonged
Persons who visit areas with a high prevalence of active TB disease
Health care workers who serve persons who are at an increased risk for active TB
Populations defined locally as having an increased incidence of TB infection or active disease (e.g., low-income populations and persons who abuse drugs or alcohol)
Infants, children, and adolescents exposed to adults who are at an increased risk for LTBI or active TB
Persons at increased risk for progression to active TBPersons living with HIV
Those who are receiving immunosuppressive therapy (e.g., TNF-αb antagonists, systemic corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive drug therapy following organ transplantation)
Those who were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis within the last 2 yr
Those with a history of untreated or inadequately treated active TB, including those with fibrotic changes on chest radiograph consistent with prior TB
Those with silicosis; diabetes mellitus; chronic renal failure; leukemia; lymphoma; or cancer of the head, neck, or lung
Those who have had a gastrectomy or jejunoileal bypass
Those who weigh <90% of their ideal body wt
Cigarette smokers and those who abuse drugs or alcohol
Those defined locally as having an increased incidence of active TB, including medically underserved or low-income populations
Infants and children aged <5 yr who are at an increased risk for a poor outcome (e.g., meningitis, disseminated disease, or death) if active TB occurs
  • a Adapted from reference 250.

  • b TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha.