TABLE 3

Toxins and exoproteins involved in progression and pathogenicity of staphylococcal infection

OrganismToxin(s) or exoprotein(s)Functional responseReference(s)
S. aureusToxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1)Activates osteoclastogenesis74
Alpha-hemolysin (Hla)Osteoblast/osteoclast cell death75
Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)Persistence of infection76, 206
Canonical coagulase (Coa)Inhibits osteoblast function77
Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs)Osteoblast cytotoxicity207209
S. epidermidisPSMsOsteoblast cytotoxicity and biofilm dispersal90, 210