TABLE 4

Outbreaks of Plesiomonas-associated gastroenteritis

YrLocationEventAttack rateaSourceNo. of strainsSerogroupStrength of evidencebReference
1961JapanMill275/870 (31.6)Cuttlefish salad88c O:17d A 91
1965JapanCommunity53/355 (14.9)Salt mackerel10(−)e B 92
1973JapanYouth center878/2,141 (45.7)Tap water21O17:H2f A 93
O22:H3
O8:H5
1974JapanBus tour24/35 (68.5)Unknown3O24:H5B 93
1980USA (NC)Oyster roast36/102 (35.2)Oysters1 C 94
1982MexicoVacationUnknownChicken2f , g O:17d C 95
1983USA (FL)Not provided29/?h Shellfish D 35
1983USA (FL)Not provided29/?Shellfish D 35
1990NetherlandsRecreational area?Freshwater9 D 96
1996USA (NY)Party60/98 (57)Potato salad11i B 97
Well water
2003CameroonParty49/78 (62.8)Cold fish17j B 98
Ndolé
  • a The attack rate was based upon the number of ill people divided by the total number of people present at the event and assuming that Plesiomonas was the single infective agent. Values in parentheses are percentages.

  • b Strength of evidence: A, multiple epidemiologically linked P. shigelloides strains isolated from outbreak and also recovered from implicated food; B, multiple epidemiologically linked P. shigelloides strains isolated from outbreak but not recovered from implicated food source; C, limited number of strains recovered from outbreak not linked to food source; D, primarily anecdotal information regarding an unpublished outbreak.

  • c An unnamed halophilic organism was isolated from 41% of patients.

  • d Based upon cross-reactivity with Shigella sonnei antiserum.

  • e All strains agglutinated with Shigella dysenteriae 7.

  • f Predominant serotype in the outbreak.

  • g Giardia lamblia was detected in the feces of one of these two persons.

  • h A total of 29 cases were reported from two outbreaks over a 6-day period.

  • i Two of 11 patients from whom Plesiomonas was isolated also had Salmonella recovered from their stools.

  • j One of 17 patients from whom Plesiomonas was isolated also had Salmonella recovered from their stools.