TABLE 2

Data on in vitro susceptibility of MDR or XDR bacteria to fosfomycin and relevant antibiotics from the larger studies published from 2010 onwardsa

CategoryFirst author, yr (reference)Country, periodMethod(s)Source of infectionResistance profilebOrganism(s)No. of isolatesSusceptibility to fosfomycin (%)Fosfomycin MIC50, MIC90 (mg/liter)
Carbapenem-resistant or carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteriaJiang, 2015 (75)China, 2010–2013ADNRKPC K. pneumoniae 27839.264, >256
Diaz-Aguilar, 2013 (61)NRAD, BMDNRCR (28.2) P. aeruginosa 20680.664, 256/512d
Tuon, 2013 (88)Brazil, 2010–2011DDVariousKPC-2 K. pneumoniae 31199NR
ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae Cho, 2015 (73)South Korea, 2008–2013MicroscanUTIESBL E. coli, K. pneumoniae 27787.7 (E. coli, 94.9; K. pneumoniae, 61.7)NR
Sultan, 2015 (86)IndiaDDUTIESBL, AmpC Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, 90%)37298.9 (ESBL, 100; AmpC, 95.7)NR
Asencio, 2014 (69)Spain, 2010–2012Vitek IIVariousESBL E. coli 82495 (ESBL, 82)NR
K. pneumoniae 13688 (ESBL, 91)
Khan, 2014 (78)Pakistan, NRDDUTIESBL Enterobacteriaceae 381Total, 84; E. coli, 93; Klebsiella spp., 64; Proteus spp., 50NR
Cagan Aktas, 2014 (71)Turkey, 2011–2012DD, EtestUTIESBL (48.4) E. coli 24499 (ESBL, 97)0.5, 3
Sorlozano, 2014 (85)Spain, 2006–2012Wider, MicroscanUTIESBL (4.4–31.8)c K. pneumoniae 3,27140–78NR
Villar, 2014 (89)Argentina, 2012–2013DDUTIESBL E. coli 37497.6 (ESBL, 98.2)NR
Villar, 2014 (89)Argentina, 2012–2013DDUTIESBL K. pneumoniae 9494.7NR
Villar, 2014 (89)Argentina, 2012–2013DDUTIESBL P. mirabilis 5072NR
Lai, 2014 (79)China, 2004–2012ADUTIESBL (58.1) E. coli 90898.4 (ESBL, 93.8)NR
Karlowsky, 2014 (77)Canada, 2007–2013ADVarious non-UTIESBL E. coli 25494.92, 4
AmpC 11996.62, 16
Morfin-Otero, 2013 (81)Mexico, 2010–2011BMDNRESBL (16) E. coli 7596.9≤32, ≤32
K. pneumoniae 21 ≤32, ≤32
Sahni, 2012 (84)India, 2009–2010DDUTIESBL (47.6) E. coli 2,41683 (ESBL, 81)NR
Araj, 2012 (68)LebanonDDUTIESBL E. coli 37486NR
K. pneumoniae 16862
Briongos-Figuero, 2012 (70)Spain, 2009Vitek II, EtestUTIESBL E. coli 37288.7NR
Klebsiella spp.2846
Lee, 2012 (80)South KoreaADNRESBL E. coli 16592.9NR
K. pneumoniae 18295.2
Hsu, 2010 (74)Taiwan, 2008–2010ADVariousCRc (43–75), ESBL (42.7) E. coli 7299 (ESBL, 96)1 and 32
K. pneumoniae 16787 (ESBL, 93)16, 64
E. cloacae 11597NR
S. marcescens 2584NR
C. freundii 2095NR
MDR Enterobacteriaceae Kahlmeter, 2012 (76)Europe, 2007–2008DDUTIMDR (18.2) E. coli 90398.8
Falagas, 2010 (57)Greece, 2007–2009EtestVariousMDR E. coli 2610032, 64
K. pneumoniae 11690.51, 4
MDR Gram-positive bacteriaChampion, 2013 (72)USA, 2008–2010Etest, Vitek IICystic fibrosisMRSA S. aureus 27799.6
Pogue, 2013 (82)USA, 2008–201Microscan, EtestVariousVRE E. faecalis 289648, 96
E. faecium 4276
Descourouez, 2013 (36)USA, 2007–2010BMDUTIVRE E. faecium 3210064, 64
Rebiahi, 2011 (83)Algeria, 2007–2009DDSurgical wound infectionsMRSA S. aureus 22094.1 (MRSA, 93.3)NR
Taj, 2010 (87)Pakistan, 2009DDVariousMRSA (31.6) S. aureus 550MSSA, 94.1; MRSA, 68.9NR
Yu, 2010 (90)China, NRDDVariousMRSA S. aureus 19633.264, 128
Falagas, 2010 (56)Greece, 2008DDVariousVariousGram positive1846 S. aureus, 99.3; MRSA, 99.2; CoNS, 77.5NR
Endimiani, 2010 (93)USA, 2009Etest, AD, DDNRKPC K. pneumoniae 686216, 64
  • a Abbreviations: AD agar dilution; AMK amikacin; BMD broth microdilution; CR carbapenem resistant; DD disk diffusion; GNM, gentamicin; KPC, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase; MDR, multidrug resistant; MRSA, methicillin-resistant S. aureus; MSSA, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus; NR, not reported; UTI, urinary tract infections; VRE, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus; XDR, extensively drug resistant.

  • b The number in parentheses is the percentage of pathogens with the specific resistance pattern. If no percentage is provided, all isolates presented the resistance pattern.

  • c Refers to ertapenem-resistant bacteria.

  • d 256 with agar dilution and 512 with broth microdilution.