TABLE 2

Reports on staphylococcal SCVs recovered from human and animal clinical specimens since 2000

SCV-associated colonization, infection, or syndromea,bSpeciesClinical detailsReferencec
Circulatory system infections
    Pacemaker-related bloodstream infection S. aureus Recurrent (7 mo) bloodstream infection due to infected cardiac pacemaker electrode 34
    Sepsis S. epidermidis Fatal case in a neutropenic patient suffering from acute myeloid leukemia despite catheter removal 19
    Pacemaker-related bloodstream infection S. lugdunensis Recurrent (10 mo) bloodstream infection due to infected ventricular pacemaker lead 26
    Bacteremia S. aureus Recurrent cardiac pacemaker-related bacteremia in a hemodialysis patient 201
    Bacteremia, spinal process S. aureus MRSA-SCV with rifampin resistance and reduced linezolid susceptibility from a spinal aspirate; SCV phenotype as a result of permanent activation of the bacterial stringent response 149
    Endocarditis S. aureus Isolation from blood from a child with subaortic ventricular septal defect 208
    Bacteremia S. aureus No further clinical details 159
    Prosthetic valve and pacemaker endocarditis with left ventricular assist device infection S. aureus Thymidine-dependent SCVs isolated from blood culture and left ventricular assist device infection 38
Integumentary system infections
    Recurring purulent skin infections S. aureus Isolation from skin specimens from a patient with Darier's disease (keratosis follicularis) over a period of 28 mo 89
    Chronic fistulous wound infection with abscess S. aureus Isolation from wound swabs during the course of Lichtenstein repair of an inguinal hernia after explantation of a synthetic mesh 209
    Nasal colonization S. aureus Isolation from nasal swabs of 3/125 AIDS patients 93
    Nasal colonization S. aureus Hemodialysis patient with thymidine-dependent MRSA-SCVs who was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole due to pulmonary infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 202
    Mastitis (bovine) S. aureus Isolation from foremilk samples from 1/11 chronically infected cows 210
    Exit site infection S. aureus Peritoneal dialysis patient with persistent and recurrent exit site infection 211
    Nasal colonization S. pseudintermedius Isolation from nasal swabs during pre-bone marrow transplantation screening in a leukemic patient with no rhinosinusitis or animal contact 18
    Chronic rhinosinusitis S. aureus Isolation from sinonasal biopsy specimens 101
    Diabetic foot ulcers S. aureus SCV detection in 4/47 S. aureus-positive samples; all SCV isolates were MRSA 187
Skeletal system infections
    Chronic osteomyelitis S. aureus Combination with osteopetrosis, femoral instability, and fracture of the femoral neck 103
    Hip prosthesis-associated infections S. aureus Five cases with treatment failures prior to SCV isolation despite several surgical revisions and up to 22 mo of administration of antibiotics 39
    Prosthetic joint infection S. epidermidis Isolation from explanted prosthetic joints; 9/11 isolates were mecA positive, and 5/11 showed aminoglycoside resistance; no auxotrophisms for hemin, menadione, or thymidine, but 3 CO2-auxotrophic SCVs 42
S. aureus SCV recovery from sonicate fluid culture 105
S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. lugdunensis, S. capitis/S. caprae SCV detection in fluid samples from 38/113 patients 20
    Prosthetic joint infection and aseptic loosening S. epidermidis, S. warneri Isolation from synovial fluid and explanted prosthetic components from 6/31 culture-positive patients with revision of total hip prosthesis 24
Nervous system infections
    Brain abscess S. aureus Isolation from pus and tissue specimens from a patient with facial paresis and a 3-mo history of seizures 10 yr after neurosurgical operation for subarachnoid hemorrhage with febrile episode 212
    Ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related meningitis S. aureus Isolation of MRSA-SCVs from cerebrospinal fluid and the shunt tip during the course of recurrent (>5 mo) episodes of meningitis 188
Multifocal and other infections, untargeted studies
    Multiorgan infection S. aureus Isolation from subcutaneous abscess in the left lower leg followed 3 mo later by multifocal pyomyositis and osteomyelitis with spinal epidural abscess and acute acalculous cholecystitis 213
    Soft tissue infection, tympanitis, bronchitis, peritonitis, sepsis S. aureus Culture of thymidine-dependent SCVs from 5 patients with various underlying chronic infections 214
    Catheter-related bacteremia, endocarditis, mediastinitis, spondylodiscitis, wound infections, respiratory infections S. aureus Isolation from clinical specimens from 14 patients during a 3-yr period, including two SCVs from nasal colonization 123
    Osteomyelitis, abscess, bacteremia S. aureus No further clinical details 138
    Irritable bowel syndrome Staphylococcus sp.Isolation from brush samples from the duodenum 215
  • a Not including SCVs recovered from airways of cystic fibrosis patients.

  • b Human infections, if not otherwise stated.

  • c Publications since 2000. For older reports, see the reviews of Proctor et al. (9) and von Eiff and Becker (104).