TABLE 1

Human ZIKV serosurvey

YrCountry and districtNo. of cases/total (%)SerologyReference(s)
1945, 1947, 1952Uganda MPTa 417
    BwambaChildren, 15/80 (18.7); adults, 13/44 (29.5)
    ToroChildren, 0/15 (0); adults, 1/46 (2.2)
    CentralChildren, 2/53 (3.3); adults, 0/12 (0)
    Malambigambo ForestChildren, 0/3 (0); adults, 0/8 (0)
    TotalsChildren, 17/151 (11.3); adults, 14/110 (12.7); all, 31/261 (11.9)
1945, 1947, 1952Tanganyika (Tanzania)Children, 2/15 (13.3); adults, 4/21 (19); all, 6/36 (16.7)MPT 417
1951, 1952Nigeria NT 2
    Ilaro74/163 (45.4)
    Kantagora12/74 (16.2)
    Total86/237 (36.3)
1951NigeriaChildren, 43/97 (44.3)MPT 418
Before 1952UgandaChildren, 2/28 (7.1); adults, 4/71 (5.6); all, 6/99 (6.1)NT 117
1952Indiar 33/196 (16.8)e NT 419
1952Nigeria50/84 (59.5)MPT 2
1953Philippines19/153 (12.4)NT 420
1953, 1954Malaya75/100 (75)NT 421
1954Thailand8/50 (16)NT 421
1954Indochina (Vietnam)2/50 (4)NT 421
1954Malaya and BorneoMalaya, 15/79 (19); Borneo, 9/50 (18)NT 422
1954EgyptChildren, 0/80 (0); adults, 1/100 (1); all, 1/180 (0.6)NT 423
1955Nigeria114/207 (55.1)MPT 418
1957MozambiqueChildren, 2/107 (1.9); adults, 8/142 (5.6); all, 10/149 (4.7)NT 424
1960AngolaChildren, 40/252 (15.9); adults, 93/240 (38.7); all, 133/492 (27)HI 120
1961, 1962Central African Republic106/217 (48.8)HAb 122
1961–1964Ethiopia HI 425
    Area where YFV is endemic37/533 (6.9)
    Area where YFV is not endemic9/783 (1.1)
    Total48/1,316 (3.6)
1962Senegal146/440 (33.2)HI 368
1963, 1964Haute Volta (Burkina Faso)1,005/1,896 (53)HI 110
1963, 1964Central African Republic HI 426
    Bangui24/391 (6.1)
    Obo17/85 (20)
    Lobaye15/239 (6.3)
    Pygmy population7/193 (3.6)
    Total63/908 (6.9)
1963–1965Ivory Coast373/864 (20)HI 427
1964, 1965Portuguese Guinea (Guinea-Bissau)Coastal region, 47/569 (8.3); interior region, 74/534 (13.9); nonresident, 1/51 (10.6); all, 122/1,154 (10.6)HI 428
1964–1966Togo401/1,294 (31)HI 110
1964–1966Cameroon614/3,612 (17)HI 429
1964–1967Mali1,232/2,369 (52)HI 110
1965Niger55/308 (17.9)HI 110
1965, 1966Nigeria60/351 (17.1)HI 56
1965, 1966Nigeria15/131 (11.5)HI 430
1966Somalia3/242 (1.2)f HI 431
1966, 1967Nigeria HI 110
    Swamp area25/172 (14.5)
    Forest area64/88 (72.7)
    Savanna area120/248 (48.4)
    Total209/508 (41.1)
1966, 1967NigeriaChildren, 0/311 (0); adults, 9/177 (5.1); all, 9/488 (1.8)HI 432
1966, 1967Uganda HI 431
    Karamoja District0/245 (0)
    Other districts5/61 (8.2)g
    Total5/306 (1.6)
1966 to 1968Kenya HI 433
    Central27/822 (3.3)
    Kitiu14/1,042 (1.3)
    Malindi434/834 (52)
    Total475/2,698 (17.6)
1967Dahomey (Benin)108/244 (44.3)HI 110
1967Gabon50/717 (7)HI 110
1967Liberia19/388 (4.9)HI 110
1967 to 1969UgandaChildren, 15/828 (1.8); adults, 89/1,041 (8.5); all, 104/1,869 (5.6)HI 434
1968KenyaChildren, 4/169 (2.4); adults, 30/267 (11.2); all, 34/436 (7.8)HI 435
1968, 1969MoroccoNot availableNot availableC. Hannoun, personal communication; 110
1969–1971, 1972NigeriaChildren, 149/285 (52.3); adults, 330/463 (71.7); all, 479/748 (64.0)c NT 436
1970Nigeria18/147 (12.2)HI 430
1971, 1972Angola69/4,590 (1.5)HI 437
1971 to 1975Nigeria59/189 (31.2)HI 125
121/300 (40.3)NT
1972Sierra Leone62/899 (6.9)HI 438
1972 and 1975Senegal1,432/2,457 (58.3)HI 279
1975Gabon1,141h/1,276d HI 129
1979Central African RepublicNonpygmy population, 93/353 (26.3); pygmy population, 17/62 (27.4)HI 439
1975Nigeria4/20 paired sera (20)i HI 440
1977, 1978Indonesia7/219 (3.2)j; 8/219 (3.7)k; 2/219 (0.9)l; total, 17/219 (7.8)HI 119
1979, 1980Gabon29/197 (14.7)HI 280
1979Central African Republic271/459 (59)HA 441
1980Nigeria150/267 (56.2)HI 442
1983Pakistan1/43(2.3)CF 121
1983Indonesia9/71 (12.7)HI 443
1984Uganda8/132 (6.1)HI 444
1988Senegal46/456 (10.1)IgM ELISA 5
1990Senegal11/396 (2.8)IgM ELISA 5
1996, 1997Borneo49/11 (44.1)NT 277
1999Ivory Coast13/24 (54.2),m 7/18 (38.9)n IgG ELISA 6
2007Yap State (Federated States of Micronesia)414/557 (74.3)IgM ELISA 16
2010Cameroon12/102 (11.7)o HI and CF 445
2011–2013French Polynesia5/593 (0.8)p IgG ELISA 123
2014French PolynesiaInhabitants 7–86 yr old, 99/196 (50); children 6–16 yr old, 314/476 (66)q IgG ELISA 142
2014Zambia217/3,625 (6)IgG + IgM ELISA 446
  • a MPT, mouse protection test.

  • b HA, hemagglutination assay.

  • c Study of DENV-2-immune serum samples.

  • d Details are not available for ZIKV, but ZIKV antibodies were detected in the 21 areas where samples were collected.

  • e Positive sera in 18/38 localities.

  • f Reactive only for ZIKV; number broadly reactive not reported.

  • g Monoreactive for ZIKV.

  • h Group B arboviruses, including ZIKV.

  • i Two of these seroconverted.

  • j ZIKV antibodies.

  • k ZIKV and DENV-2 antibodies.

  • l ZIKV and two or more other antibodies.

  • m Mosquito catchers.

  • n Suspected cases of yellow fever.

  • o Monoreactive for ZIKV.

  • p Blood donors.

  • q All serum samples collected after ZIKV outbreak.

  • r Thirty-eight scattered localities.