TABLE 7

Common features of ZIKV and other arboviruses

ParameterZIKVCHIKVWNVDENV
Family Flaviviridae (45)a Togaviridae (454) Flaviviridae (45) Flaviviridae (45)
Genus Flavivirus (45) Alphavirus (454) Flavivirus (45) Flavivirus (45)
Place and/or time of discoveryUganda, 1947 (1)Tanzania, 1952 (455)b Uganda, 1937 (111)During World War II (458)c
Recent emergencePacific, 2007 (16), 2013 (18); Americas, 2015 (27, 28, 30, 33, 195)Kenya, 2004 (460); Indian Ocean islands, 2005 (409, 463); India, 2005/2006 (466); Europe, 2007 (223 225); Southeast Asia, 2008 (467); Pacific, 2011 (25); Caribbean, 2013 (468 470)Romania, 1996 (404); Russia, 1999 (461); Italy, 2008 (226, 462); New York, 1999 (407); North and South America, 1999 (408, 464, 465)Global (104)
Geographic distribution (autochthonous human infections)Africa (33); Americas (30); Asia (119); Oceania (18)Africa (95); Americas (95); Asia (95); Europe (95); Oceania (95)Africa (406); Americas (406); Asia (406); Europe (406)Africa (104); Americas (104); Asia (104); Europe (104); Oceania (104)
Cocirculation of ZIKV with DENV, CHIKV, and WNVAfrica (33); Americas (33); Asia (119)Africa (95); Americas (95); Asia (95)Africa (406); Americas (406); Asia (406)Africa (104); Americas (104); Asia (104)
Ratio of symptomatic/asymptomatic infections1/5–1/6 (123, 142)8.5/10 (373)1/4 (375)1/4–1/9 (75, 374)
Main presentationAsymptomatic or mild disease (16, 396)Mild disease (373) with persistent and relapsing arthralgia in up to 50% of patientsAsymptomatic or mild disease (471)Asymptomatic or mild disease, hemorrhagic fever (82)
Main complicationsNeurological complications in adults in French Polynesia and Brazil, 2013–2015 (18, 31, 34) and in neonates in French Polynesia and Brazil (26, 31, 35 37, 384)Neurological complications on Reunion Island, 2005–2006 (409 411)Neurological complications in Romania, Russia, Italy, United States (226, 404, 407, 412, 462)Dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (82, 331)
When no longer considered to cause mild disease, location2013, French Polynesia (18, 34)2005, Reunion Island (472)1996, Romania (404)Never considered to cause mild disease
Expanding lineage or serotypeAsian (17, 271)East/Central/South African (ECSA) (373); Asian (473)Lineage 1 (474)Circulation and emergence of all 4 dengue serotypes (104)
New mosquito vector(s) recent adapted to Ae. hensilii (Yap State) (16, 295), Ae. albopictus (Gabon) (14) Ae. albopictus (Reunion, Mauritius …) (475)Not reportedMost Aedes species of subgenus Stegomyia f (476)
Adaptation from zoonotic cycle in Africa to urban cyclePacific islands (40)Reported (83, 373, 477 479)Not reportedReported (82, 400)
Non-vector-borne transmission modesMaternofetal (307), transfusiond (312)Maternofetal (68, 69) (409), transfusiond (413)Maternofetal (70, 71), transfusione (77, 309)Maternofetal (66, 67), transfusion (75, 76)
  • a Reference numbers are in parentheses.

  • b But chikungunya is probably an older disease known as ki denga pepo (456, 457).

  • c But dengue-like illness has been described for at least 250 years (459).

  • d Potential risk.

  • e Public health problem in North America.

  • f In the version of this article published on 30 March 2016, “Stegomyia” was incorrectly spelled “Stemomyia.” This was changed in the version published on 9 May 2016.