TABLE 2

Summary of altered virulence gene expression in the presence of bile

PathogenAdhesin/flagellum (reference[s])Invasin/secretion system (reference[s])Toxin(s) (reference[s])Additional factor(s) or description (reference[s])
Escherichia coli
    ETECInduced colonization factors such as CS19 (45) and CS5 (44) Altered estA and eltA enterotoxin expression (24)
    EPECInduction of the bundle-forming pilus, increased adherence, and decreased motility (25) Reduced bile reabsorption by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter in enterocytes (50)
    EHECRepressed flagellar motor genes (39) Repressed Shiga toxin expression (23)Repressed LEE pathogenicity island (39)
Shigella Induced adherence mediated by OspE1/OspE2 (65)Induced invasion through IpaD interaction (61) Induced protein secretion (58, 65), and 51 induced genes in the presence of bile salts (65)
Vibrio
    V. cholerae Repressed toxin-coregulated pilus and increased motility (88, 89)Induced expression of T3SS genes (94); induction of VopX, a T3SS effector (95); diminished T6SS activity (97)Repression of cholera toxin (88, 89), induction of the related TRH (96)Effects on transcriptional regulators ToxR (90), TcpP (91), H-NS and FlrA (92), and ToxT (93)
    V. parahaemolyticus Induced expression of T3SS2 (105)Induced expression of TDH (105)Induced transcriptional regulators VtrA and VtrB (105); 69 genes induced in the presence of bile (104)
    V. vulnificus To be determined
Salmonella Downregulation of motility; regulation of fimbrial adherence factors (128, 137, 142)Repression of T3SS through SPI-1 inhibition (126, 136); SipD interacts with bile (140, 141) Repression of SirC and InvF (3, 117); gallbladder colonization
Campylobacter Increased flagellin A expression (166), biofilm formation mediated through adhesion with the flagellar filament (165)Induced expression of Cia (164) Increased chemotaxis through induced CheV protein and ATP synthase expression (166)
Clostridium Enhanced germination of spores with greater abundance of primary bile acids following antimicrobial killing of the microbiota (170, 172)
Listeria Possible enhanced fecal shedding following growth in the gallbladder (174)