TABLE 4

Future bile-related research goals for each pathogen

PathogenFuture research goal(s)
Escherichia coli Analysis of additional pathovars such as EIEC, AIEC, and DAEC
Further analysis of bile resistance and regulation of bile-mediated virulence
Further analysis of commensal organisms
    ETECFunctional studies to characterize the bile response and coordination of virulence factor expression
    EPECCharacterization of the mechanism and clinical implications of bile malabsorption during infection
    EHECFuture transcriptomic studies to understand the complete bile response
Shigella Identification of resistance mechanisms and regulation of virulence factors
Utilization of bile extract in future analyses
Vibrio
    V. cholerae Further investigation into the complex regulatory network of the bile response
Use of consistent sources of bile
    V. parahaemolyticus Improved understanding of the bile response
Further analysis of bile-mediated virulence
    V. vulnificus Identification of virulence factors affected by bile exposure
Salmonella Comparison of serovars to understand various bile responses and related infection strategies
Utilization of bile in analyses of infection models
Campylobacter Clarification of the relationship between bile exposure and induction of adherence and motility
Additional transcriptomic analyses of bile exposure
Clostridium Identification of resistance mechanisms and additional virulence factors
Listeria Identification of virulence factors affected by bile exposure