Table 1.

Key antigens in P. falciparum gametocyte development and transmission-blocking vaccines

Antigen(s)Localization a FunctionReference(s)
PfEMP-1RBC membraneSequestration 105, 193
RIFINUnknownSequestration? 351, 505
STEVORRBC membraneSequestration? 273
Pfs16PVMUnknown 21, 22
Pfpeg3 and -4PVMEarly gametocyte development 417
PF14 744 and PF14 748PVMGametocyte development 138
Pfg377OBGametocyte maturation, osmiophilic body formation, and egression of macrogametes 6, 108
Pfg27GCT cytoplasmGametocyte formation/integrity; evidence for RNA binding 21, 78, 253, 408
Pfs48/45 b GMFertilization: male fertility factor attachment of male microgametes to fertile female macrogametes 493, 494
Pfs47GMFertilization: female fertility factor (not essential) 498
Pfs230 b GMFertilization: adherence of male gametes to red blood cells; may protect parasite from contents of blood meal; complement required for antibody function 137, 369, 514
HAP-2GM (male)Fertilization: fusion of gamete surface membranes 40, 251
Pfs25 and Pfs28 b OMMidgut penetration, ookinete survival, oocyst formation 28, 130, 477
  • a RBC, red blood cell; PVM, parasitophorous vacuole membrane; OB, osmiophilic bodies; GCT, gametocyte; GM, gametocyte/gamete membrane; OM, zygote and ookinete membrane.

  • b Malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate in the most advanced stage of development.