TABLE 1.

Adaptations of P. aeruginosa observed during chronic respiratory infections of CF patients

AdaptationMutated gene(s)Reference(s)
Mucoid colony morphology mucA 63, 379
Antibiotic resistance mexZ, mexA, mexT, ampD 556
Lipopolysaccharide alterations pagL, O-antigen biosynthetic cluster (himD/ihfB to wbpM) 89, 176, 177, 182, 329, 570
Loss of type III secretion exsA, vfr, cyaB 556
Loss of motility rpoN, vfr, fleQ, pilB, pilQ, cyaB 82, 329, 368, 556
Auxotrophy and metabolic changes lasR 37, 38, 125, 547
Small-colony variants wspF 556
Defective quorum sensing lasR 125, 342, 556, 647
Hypermutability mutS, mutL, uvrD 96, 434
Loss of pyoverdin secretion or uptakeDeletion of pyoverdin synthetic and uptake genes 147, 176, 262
Loss of pyocin production 501
Changes in pyocyanin production 196, 197, 342, 654, 656
Peptidoglycan modification 89
Loss of type II secretion or altered activity of secreted factors (e.g., exotoxin A, phospholipase C, elastase) toxA, toxR 75, 196, 203, 262, 342, 432, 556, 661