TABLE 1.

Systemic monotherapeutic antibacterials and their targets

ClassTargetFunction inhibited
β-LactamsPBPsPeptidoglycan synthesis
Glycopeptides d-Ala-d-Ala of lipid IIPeptidoglycan synthesis
MacrolidesrRNA of 50S ribosome subunitProtein synthesis
LincosamidesrRNA of 50S ribosome subunitProtein synthesis
ChloramphenicolrRNA of 50S ribosome subunitProtein synthesis
OxazolidinonesrRNA of 50S ribosome subunitProtein synthesis
TetracyclinesrRNA of 30S ribosome subunitProtein synthesis
Aminoglycosidesa rRNA of 30S ribosome subunitProtein synthesis/ mistranslation
FluoroquinolonesTopoisomerases (DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV)DNA replication
DaptomycinMembranes
MetronidazoleDNA
  • a Streptomycin, an aminoglycoside, is an exception in that it targets a ribosomal protein, and single-step resistance can occur by mutation in its gene, rpsL.