TABLE 9.

Subtypes of Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in humans

Location(s)LocusTotal no. of samplesNo. of samples with subtype: Reference
A-IA-IIOther(s)
Europe gdh, bg, or tpi 594148446 247
BelgiumMLGa 1818 93
France gdh and tpi 88 (A2) 31
Germany bg 33 (A3) 227
Italy bg 66 (A1) 168
Italy bg 171 (A1)7 (A2), 3 (A3), 2 (A4), 3 (new)1 (A1 + A2) 148
Italy bg 1310 (A2), 2 (A3), 1 (A2 + A3) 39
Italy, AfricaMLG32230 37
Portugal bg 21 (A2), 1 (A3) 10
Portugal bg 2525 (A1) 245
United Kingdom tpi b 1212 14
United Kingdom tpi 99 35
Mexico vsp b 1919 206
Mexico bg 1715 (A1)2 (A3) 147
Mexico bg b 18117 70
Argentina tpi 33 (A2) 174
Brazil bg 6260 (A1)2 (A2) 287
Brazil gdh 2923 (A2), 6 (A4) 246
Nicaragua bg 163 (A2), 13 (A3) 153
Peru gdh b 1091 203
Peru tpi 66 (A2) 249
Peru tpi 8686 57a
Bangladesh tpi 298 (A1)20 (A2)1 (A1 + A2) 111
China tpi 128 (A1)4 (A2) 289
Japan gdh 21 (A2), 1 (A4) 2
India tpi 83 (A1), 2 (AI, unknown)3 (A2) 265
Philippines tpi b 50347 301
Saudi Arabia igs c 2512112 (AI + AII) 12
Thailand gdh b 55 212
Thailand bg b 18315 274
Australia gdh 41 (A1)3 (A2) 214
Australia gdh 2727 (A2) 299
Australia, China, Cambodia tpi 53 (A1)2 (A2) 162
Ethiopia bg 231 (A1)5 (A2), 16 (A3), 1 (new) 87
Sahrawi gdh and tpi 161 for tpi (A1)2 (A2) and 14 (A3) for gdh; 6 (A2), 1 (A3), 2 (A4), and 2 (new) for tpi 145
Total1,2293229034
  • a Multilocus genotype analyses of the gdh and bg genes and the tpi gdh, bg, and tpi genes.

  • b By PCR-RFLP analysis instead of sequencing.

  • c Intergenic spacer of the rRNA gene.