Table 3.

Clinical presentation of dematiaceous molds

ConditionClinical presentationTissues involvedGeneral agents that can cause the entityMolds most frequently associated with clinical presentationOther molds associated
EumycetomaPainless mass in extremities with multiple sinuses that drain pus and grainsSkin, soft tissues, fascia, boneBacteria, hyaline and pigmented molds Madurella spp. Scedosporium, Acremonium, Exophiala, Aspergillus, and others
ChromoblastomycosisTumor-like lesions of skin (nodules, verruca, scar, plaques)Skin, underlying soft tissuesPigmented molds Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Cladophialophora carrionii Phialophora verrucosa, Rhinocladiella spp., Exophiala spp., and others
PhaeohyphomycosisImmunocompetent individuals present with single lesion (cyst, plaque) in the area of inoculation; in immunosuppressed patients the inoculation site may be a nodule, eschar, ulcer, or other and may disseminate to other organsSkin, soft tissue, sinuses, lungs, brainPigmented molds Exophiala jeanselmei, Exophiala dermatitidis, Bipolaris spp. Alternaria, Curvularia, Exserohilum