Table 2

Factors associated with increased risk of developing HBV-related HCC

FactorReference(s)
Demographics
    Male sex 42, 82
    Age (increased risk with advancing age) 42, 82
    Race 5
Social and environmental
    Alcohol 42, 82
    Smoking 42
    Aflatoxin 285
HBV factors
    HBV DNA levels 41, 42
    Presence of HBeAg 42
    Genotype (C more than B) 289
    Core promoter mutations 289, 292
Liver damage
    Cirrhosis 42, 82
    Increased transaminase levels 42
Miscellaneous
    Coinfection with HCV 82, 142
    Superinfection with HDV 82