Table 3

Role of HBx protein in hepatocarcinogenesisa

Inhibition of p53Inhibition of sequence-specific binding of p53 279
Centrosome abnormalitiesInduction of multipolar spindle formation 84
Telomerase activityIncreases telomerase activity and expression of hTERT 164
Inhibition of apoptosisActivates p38/MAPK pathway and upregulates survivin, an antiapoptotic protein 143
Jak1/STAT signalingActivates Jak1/STAT pathway 152
TGF-βShifts TGF-β signaling from tumor suppression to oncogenesis 194
Defective DNA repairDefective nucleotide excision repair 217
Hypermethylation of TSGsInduction of DNA methyltransferases and suppression of TSGs 150, 211
  • a Abbreviations: hTERT, human telomerase reverse transcriptase; TGF-β, transforming growth factor β; MAPK, mitogen-activation protein kinase; TSG, tumor suppressor gene.