Table 4

Factors influencing estimated prevalence of occult HBV infection

FactorCommentReference(s)
Population studied
    Risk groupPrevalence rates vary between high-risk groups and low-risk groups 29, 259
Sampling
    No. of samplesOccult HBV DNA may be intermittently detected in serum; serial sampling is ideal 113
HBV DNA may be detected in liver but not in serum 108, 238
Testing
    HBsAg testingSome commercial assays are better suited for detection of HBsAg mutants 147
    HBV DNA testingTargeting multiple regions of the HBV genome improves detection; differences between amplification methods for HBV DNA testing exist 108, 260
Geographical region
    HBV prevalenceEndemicity of HBV infection correlates with prevalence of occult HBV infection 166
    CoinfectionsHCV/HIV coinfections are associated with higher rates of occult HBV infection 29, 170