Table 7

Epidemiological data for non-culture-based methods

Skin type and referenceNo. of patients% of cultures positive for: Method(s) and target gene(s) a Description
M. globosaM. restrictaM. sympodialisM. furfurM. slooffiaeM. obtusaM. dermatisM. yamatoensisM. japonica
Healthy
    308 2010092Quantitative PCR targeting 26S rDNA and the ITS2 regionHealthy skin of psoriasis patients; only M. globosa and M. restricta were searched for
    307 277056152218.544Nested PCR, real-time PCR targeting ITS1 and IGS1 regionsHealthy skin of seborrheic dermatitis patients
    307 3087833727171030710Nested PCR, real-time PCR targeting ITS1 and IGS1 regionsHealthy patients
    295 1844.56150117Nested PCR targeting ITS1, ITS2, 5.5S rDNAHealthy university students
Pityriasis versicolor
    224 49949435108424.546Nested PCR, real-time PCR targeting ITS1 and IGS1 regionsOnly M. globosa was detected in scales with hyphae by direct microscopy
Seborrheic dermatitis
    307 3193.57435.56.53910391013Nested PCR, real-time PCR targeting ITS1 and IGS1 regionsLesional seborrheic dermatitis skin harbored 3 times more Malassezia populations than healthy skin
Atopic eczema
    344 601622322136PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, 26S rDNAMixed isolations were observed but not further analyzed; there was no significant difference between positive Malassezia cultures, isolated Malassezia species, and severity of atopic eczema
    307 361009758333128311458Nested PCR, real-time PCR targeting ITS1 and IGS1 regionsAtopic eczema skin was colonized more often than seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, or healthy skin
    295 3287.5944141Nested PCR targeting ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S rDNA M. restricta,M. globosa, and M. furfur DNAs were more commonly found in atopic eczema lesions than in controls; this was not found for M. sympodialis
    298 3430–3545–51qPCR targeting 26S rDNA and the ITS2 regionOnly M. globosa and M. restricta were searched for; Malassezia colonized all atopic eczema patients, but the load on the head was 12.4 times higher than that on the trunk and 6.8 times higher than that on limbs
Psoriasis
    308 209892No correlation of psoriasis severity with Malassezia colonization; Malassezia load on the head was 10-40 times higher than that on the trunk; M. restricta was significantly more common than M. globosa in lesional skin of the head and limb; the other Malassezia species were not individually searched for
    9 22829664182718271427IGS, ITSNo difference in detection rate of Malassezia spp. between healthy and psoriasis skin and no associations with age, gender, site, severity, or treatment; psoriasis and atopic eczema skin presented higher levels of species variability
  • a ITS, internal transcribed spacer; IGS, intergenic spacer.