Table 8

Malassezia species subtypes associated with skin diseases a

Malassezia sp. and referenceMethodDescription
M. globosa
    112 PCR–single-strand conformational polymorphism of ITS1 M. globosa strains were distinguished into 5 subtypes; 1 was associated with extensive disease
    307 IGS1 sequencing8 groups were identified, 1 comprised of healthy strains, 5 comprised of seborrheic dermatitis and atopic eczema, and 2 comprised of healthy and seborrheic dermatitis strains
    294 IGS1 sequencing4 groups, 2 from atopic eczema, 1 healthy, and 1 healthy and atopic eczema mixed
M. restricta
    296 IGS1 sequencingStrains from healthy individuals were distinguished from strains from atopic eczema patients and had fewer sequence repeats
    307 IGS1 sequencingA healthy skin group and a seborrheic dermatitis group were identified
    247 Sequencing of 18S rDNA (partial), ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2, and 28S rDNA (partial)Six sequence types were identified in building dust, and Malassezia yeasts were the most common isolates, especially in winter
M. sympodialis
    112 PCR–single-strand conformational polymorphism of ITS1 M. sympodialis displayed a uniform profile
    109 PCR–single-strand conformational polymorphism of Mala s 1 sequences M. sympodialis displayed a uniform profiles
    38 Sequencing of D1 and D2 regions of 26S rDNA, ITS-5.8 rDNAIsolates from different animals clustered within 4 groups, including M dermatis and M. nana
    207 ITS1 sequencingSubgroups in stock strains identified without clinical relevance
    134 Amplified fragment length polymorphism M. sympodialis displayed uniform profiles
M. furfur
    111 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of ITS2 M. furfur strains of Greek origin presented an additional BanI restriction site compared to Bulgarian and CBS collection strains
    125 26S D1/D2 sequencing, partial 5.8S and ITS2 region sequencingColombian M. furfur isolates with variable Tween assimilation profiles clustered into a distinct group
    207 ITS1 sequencingSubgroups in stock strains identified without clinical relevance
    315 Amplified fragment length polymorphism4 subgroups identified; 1 included systemic isolates from humans
    117 PCR-random amplified polymorphic DNAPityriasis versicolor strains were differentiated from seborrheic dermatitis/seborrheic dermatitis-HIV strains
    134 Amplified fragment length polymorphismStrains from neonatal systemic infections and skin clustered into two distinct groups
    350 PCR-fingerprinting (M13 primer) M. furfur from Han and Tibetan volunteers clustered into different groups; also, skin disease associations were evident
    88 PCR-random amplified polymorphic DNA (M13, OPA2, OPA4)Only 5 strains of M. furfur were included, and some difference could be observed between human and cattle isolates
    113 PCR-fingerprinting (M13 primer)Greek, Bulgarian, and Scandinavian (permanent Greek residents) strains were categorized into distinct groups; within the Bulgarian cluster, seborrheic dermatitis strains were differentiated from pityriasis versicolor and dandruff strains
    170 ITS1 sequencingAll isolates from blood culture bottles and catheter tips clustered into a single group
M. slooffiae
    88 PCR-random amplified polymorphic DNA (M13, OPA2, OPA4 primers)OPA2 and OPA4 differentiated human from cattle isolates
M. pachydermatis
    207 ITS1 sequencingSubgroups in stock strains identified without clinical relevance
    3 chs-2 sequencing, PCR-random amplified polymorphic DNA (FM1 primer)Four subgroups were differentiated; good correlation between the 2 methods
    46 LSU rDNA, ITS1, chs-2 gene sequencing3 major groups with lipid-dependent strains clustering in 2 of them, and non-lipid-dependent strains dispersed in all 3 groups; associations with origins of strains were highlighted
    45 PCR–single-strand conformational polymorphism of the ITS1 region and chs-2 Typing was possible without any clinically relevant information retrieved
    43 PCR–single-strand conformational polymorphism of the ITS1 region and chs-2 ITS1 region more variable than chs-2 sequences; 3 major genotype groups distinguished, and 2 were associated with extensive disease and increased phospholipase activity, and 1 was associated with healthy skin and lower phospholipase activity
    222 Multilocus enzyme electrophoresisConsiderable genetic variation corresponding to that revealed by partial LSU sequencing
    4 PCR-random amplified polymorphic DNA (FM1 primer), chs-2 sequencingLow discriminatory potential due to the same origin of the strains (dog otitis)
    49 PCR-random amplified polymorphic DNA (M13, OPT-20)M13 primer did not differentiate groups; OPT-20 differentiated 4 groups, with 2 of them correlating with the external ear canal of dogs
  • a ITS, internal transcribed spacer; IGS, intergenic spacer; LSU, large subunit; chs-2, chitin synthase 2 gene.