Table 9

Effects of Malassezia interactions with cells a

SpeciesReferenceGrowth mediumRatio of no. of Malassezia cells/no. of cellsSubstrate(s)Growth factor(s) of innate immunityDescription
M. furfur 306 Dixon's agarLive or heat-killed cellsMonocytic cell line (THP-1), granulocytic cell line (HL-60)Up, IL-1α, IL-8; no change, IL-6, -8, and -12, TNF-αELISA and reverse transcription-PCR with visual comparison of the produced mRNA were employed, thus having restricted sensitivity; opsonized cells induced higher levels of IL-8 expression than did nonopsonized cells
M. furfur 329 SD liquid + Tween 401 to 1Normal human keratinocytesNo effect, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1No effect on expression of cytokines tested
M. furfur 28 SD + olive oil + Tween 8030 to 1HaCaTUp, ICAM-1, IL-10, TGF-β1; down, IL-1α, TNF-α; no expression, IL-6IL-6 was not expressed, and this was attributed to the downregulation of IL-1α and TNF-α
M. furfur 329 SD liquid + Tween 401 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α; no change, MCP-11-24 h of stimulation, efficient cytokine production when coincubation was done for >6 h; M. furfur and all culture supernatants had no effect on cytokine production
M. furfur 86 SD + olive oil + Tween 8030 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, HBD-2, TGF-β1, IL-10HBD-2 is protein kinase C dependent and has the ability to kill M. furfur cells at 50 μg/ml
M. furfur 27 SD + olive oil + Tween 8030 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, TGF-β1, integrins (αv, β1, β3, β5), HSP70Activating protein 1 was considered to mediate expression, as this effect was inhibited by curcumin
M. furfur 26 SD + olive oil + Tween 8030 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, TLR2, MyD88, IL-8, HBD-2 and -3TLR2-dependent increase in levels of HBD-2 and IL-8
M. furfur 161 LNA20 to 1PHK16-0b, normal human keratinocytesNo significant expression of cytokines by microarray analysisAbsence of a T-helper-2-polarizing response of keratinocytes was attributed to minor contribution of this species to atopic eczema
M. furfur 316 LN broth27 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10; no change, TNF-αStimulation of cytokine production depended on species, growth phase (exponential vs stationary), and removal of the lipid layer; nonviable, stationary cells of M. furfur produced the highest increase in levels of IL-6
M. globosa 161 LNA20 to 1PHK16-0b, normal human epidermal keratinocytesIL-3, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13, GM-CSF, IL-8, TIMP-1 and -2Slightly lower expression levels of cytokines in human keratinocytes, with GM-CSF, IL-5, and IL-10 being the most significantly induced
M. globosa 316 LN broth27 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10; no change, TNF-αStimulation of cytokine production depended on species, growth phase (exponential vs stationary), and removal of the lipid layer; viable, stationary cells produced the highest increase in levels of IL-8 after lipid capsule removal
M. globosa 160 LNA20 to 1Normal human keratinocytesThymic stromal lymphopoietinExpression level of thymic stromal lymphopoietin was increased at higher calcium concentrations and was decreased when cells were treated with detergent
M. restricta 316 LN broth27 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10; no change, TNF-αStimulation of cytokine production depended on species, growth phase (exponential vs stationary), and removal of the lipid layer; viable, stationary cells produced the second highest increase in IL-8 levels after lipid capsule removal
M. restricta 161 LNA20 to 1PHK16-0b, normal human epidermal keratinocytesIL-4, monocyte inhibitory protein 3α, leptin, cutaneous-T-cell-attracting chemokine, placental growth factorIL-4 was the only cytokine significantly expressed in normal human keratinocytes
M. restricta 160 LNA20 to 1Normal human keratinocytesThymic stromal lymphopoietinExpression level of thymic stromal lymphopoietin was increased at higher calcium concentrations and was decreased when cells were treated with detergent
M. slooffiae 329 SD liquid + Tween 401 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α; no change, MCP-1Achieved lower levels expression of cytokines than M. pachydermatis and levels equivalent to those achieved by M. sympodialis; culture supernatants had no effect
M. slooffiae 329 SD liquid + Tween 401 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α; no change, MCP-11-24 h of stimulation, efficient cytokine production at >6 h of coincubation; culture supernatants had no effect on cytokine production
M. slooffiae 316 LN broth27 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10; no change, TNF-αStimulation of cytokine production depended on species, growth phase (exponential vs stationary), and removal of the lipid layer
M. sympodialis 329 SD liquid + Tween 401 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α; no change, MCP-1Achieved lower levels of expression of cytokines than M. pachydermatis and levels comparable to those of M. sympodialis; culture supernatants had no effect
M. sympodialis 161 LNA20 to 1PHK16-0b, NHEKIL-6, bone morphogenetic protein 6Absence of a T- helper-2-polarizing response of keratinocytes was attributed to the minor contribution of this species to atopic eczema
M. sympodialis 316 LN Broth27 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10; no change, TNF-αStimulation of cytokine production depended on species, growth phase (exponential vs stationary), and removal of the lipid layer
M. sympodialis 282 Whole extractBone marrow-derived mouse mast cellsUp, cysteinyl leukotrienes, IL-6, MCP-1The extract increased the level of production of cysteinyl leukotrienes in non-IgE-sensitized cells and IgE-mediated degranulation, IL-6, and ERK phosphorylation in IgE receptor-cross-linked cells; this activation was TLR2/MyD88 dependent and independent
M. sympodialis 264 M. sympodialis extractBone marrow-derived mouse mast cellsUp, IL-6, IL-8, TLR-2, dectin-1Mast cells from atopic dermatitis patients demonstrated a defective expression of dectin-1 and an enhanced response to M. sympodialis
M. obtusa 316 LN broth27 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10; no change, TNF-αStimulation of cytokine production depended on species, growth phase (exponential vs stationary), and removal of the lipid layer; M. obtusa caused the second highest level of IL-6 production with nonviable, stationary cells after removal of the lipid layer
M. pachydermatis 329 SD liquid + Tween 401 to 1Normal human keratinocytesUp, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α; no change, MCP-1Achieved the highest levels of expression of cytokines compared to those of M. sympodialis and M. slooffiae; culture supernatants had no effect
M. pachydermatis 340 Potato dextrose agar with olive oilIncreasing concentrationsBone marrow-derived macrophagesUp, TNF-α, MIP-2, KC, IL-10Part of the induction of these cytokines was through the activation of Mincle
  • a SD, Sabouraud dextrose agar; IL, interleukin; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α ICAM-1: intercellular adhesion molecule 1; TGF, transforming growth factor; MCP-1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1; HBD, human beta defensin; HSP70, heat shock protein 70; TLR2, Toll-like receptor 2; LNA, Leeming-Notman agar; LN, Leeming-Notman; GM-CSF, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor; TIMP-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.